From Images to Textual Prompts: Zero-Shot Visual Question Answering With Frozen Large Language Models
Jiaxian Guo · Junnan Li · Dongxu Li · Anthony Meng Huat Tiong · Boyang Li · Dacheng Tao · Steven Hoi
West Building Exhibit Halls ABC 251
Large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated excellent zero-shot generalization to new language tasks. However, effective utilization of LLMs for zero-shot visual question-answering (VQA) remains challenging, primarily due to the modality disconnection and task disconnection between LLM and VQA task. End-to-end training on vision and language data may bridge the disconnections, but is inflexible and computationally expensive. To address this issue, we propose Img2Prompt, a plug-and-play module that provides the prompts that can bridge the aforementioned modality and task disconnections, so that LLMs can perform zero-shot VQA tasks without end-to-end training. In order to provide such prompts, we further employ LLM-agnostic models to provide prompts that can describe image content and self-constructed question-answer pairs, which can effectively guide LLM to perform zero-shot VQA tasks. Img2Prompt offers the following benefits: 1) It can flexibly work with various LLMs to perform VQA. 2) Without the needing of end-to-end training, it significantly reduces the cost of deploying LLM for zero-shot VQA tasks. 3) It achieves comparable or better performance than methods relying on end-to-end training. For example, we outperform Flamingo by 5.6% on VQAv2. On the challenging A-OKVQA dataset, our method even outperforms few-shot methods by as much as 20%.