Neural Rate Estimator and Unsupervised Learning for Efficient Distributed Image Analytics in Split-DNN Models
Nilesh Ahuja · Parual Datta · Bhavya Kanzariya · V. Srinivasa Somayazulu · Omesh Tickoo
West Building Exhibit Halls ABC 193
Thanks to advances in computer vision and AI, there has been a large growth in the demand for cloud-based visual analytics in which images captured by a low-powered edge device are transmitted to the cloud for analytics. Use of conventional codecs (JPEG, MPEG, HEVC, etc.) for compressing such data introduces artifacts that can seriously degrade the performance of the downstream analytic tasks. Split-DNN computing has emerged as a paradigm to address such usages, in which a DNN is partitioned into a client-side portion and a server side portion. Low-complexity neural networks called ‘bottleneck units’ are introduced at the split point to transform the intermediate layer features into a lower-dimensional representation better suited for compression and transmission. Optimizing the pipeline for both compression and task-performance requires high-quality estimates of the information-theoretic rate of the intermediate features. Most works on compression for image analytics use heuristic approaches to estimate the rate, leading to suboptimal performance. We propose a high-quality ‘neural rate-estimator’ to address this gap. We interpret the lower-dimensional bottleneck output as a latent representation of the intermediate feature and cast the rate-distortion optimization problem as one of training an equivalent variational auto-encoder with an appropriate loss function. We show that this leads to improved rate-distortion outcomes. We further show that replacing supervised loss terms (such as cross-entropy loss) by distillation-based losses in a teacher-student framework allows for unsupervised training of bottleneck units without the need for explicit training labels. This makes our method very attractive for real world deployments where access to labeled training data is difficult or expensive. We demonstrate that our method outperforms several state-of-the-art methods by obtaining improved task accuracy at lower bitrates on image classification and semantic segmentation tasks.