Vector Quantization With Self-Attention for Quality-Independent Representation Learning
Zhou Yang · Weisheng Dong · Xin Li · Mengluan Huang · Yulin Sun · Guangming Shi
West Building Exhibit Halls ABC 367
Recently, the robustness of deep neural networks has drawn extensive attention due to the potential distribution shift between training and testing data (e.g., deep models trained on high-quality images are sensitive to corruption during testing). Many researchers attempt to make the model learn invariant representations from multiple corrupted data through data augmentation or image-pair-based feature distillation to improve the robustness. Inspired by sparse representation in image restoration, we opt to address this issue by learning image-quality-independent feature representation in a simple plug-and-play manner, that is, to introduce discrete vector quantization (VQ) to remove redundancy in recognition models. Specifically, we first add a codebook module to the network to quantize deep features. Then we concatenate them and design a self-attention module to enhance the representation. During training, we enforce the quantization of features from clean and corrupted images in the same discrete embedding space so that an invariant quality-independent feature representation can be learned to improve the recognition robustness of low-quality images. Qualitative and quantitative experimental results show that our method achieved this goal effectively, leading to a new state-of-the-art result of 43.1% mCE on ImageNet-C with ResNet50 as the backbone. On other robustness benchmark datasets, such as ImageNet-R, our method also has an accuracy improvement of almost 2%.