Video-based 3D human pose and shape estimations are evaluated by intra-frame accuracy and inter-frame smoothness. Although these two metrics are responsible for different ranges of temporal consistency, existing state-of-the-art methods treat them as a unified problem and use monotonous modeling structures (e.g., RNN or attention-based block) to design their networks. However, using a single kind of modeling structure is difficult to balance the learning of short-term and long-term temporal correlations, and may bias the network to one of them, leading to undesirable predictions like global location shift, temporal inconsistency, and insufficient local details. To solve these problems, we propose to structurally decouple the modeling of long-term and short-term correlations in an end-to-end framework, Global-to-Local Transformer (GLoT). First, a global transformer is introduced with a Masked Pose and Shape Estimation strategy for long-term modeling. The strategy stimulates the global transformer to learn more inter-frame correlations by randomly masking the features of several frames. Second, a local transformer is responsible for exploiting local details on the human mesh and interacting with the global transformer by leveraging cross-attention. Moreover, a Hierarchical Spatial Correlation Regressor is further introduced to refine intra-frame estimations by decoupled global-local representation and implicit kinematic constraints. Our GLoT surpasses previous state-of-the-art methods with the lowest model parameters on popular benchmarks, i.e., 3DPW, MPI-INF-3DHP, and Human3.6M. Codes are available at https://github.com/sxl142/GLoT.