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Poster Session TUE-PM

West Building Exhibit Halls ABC

Passive Micron-Scale Time-of-Flight With Sunlight Interferometry

Alankar Kotwal · Anat Levin · Ioannis Gkioulekas

We introduce an interferometric technique for passive time-of-flight imaging and depth sensing at micrometer axial resolutions. Our technique uses a full-field Michelson interferometer, modified to use sunlight as the only light source. The large spectral bandwidth of sunlight makes it possible to acquire micrometer-resolution time-resolved scene responses, through a simple axial scanning operation. Additionally, the angular bandwidth of sunlight makes it possible to capture time-of-flight measurements insensitive to indirect illumination effects, such as interreflections and subsurface scattering. We build an experimental prototype that we operate outdoors, under direct sunlight, and in adverse environment conditions such as machine vibrations and vehicle traffic. We use this prototype to demonstrate, for the first time, passive imaging capabilities such as micrometer-scale depth sensing robust to indirect illumination, direct-only imaging, and imaging through diffusers.

F2-NeRF: Fast Neural Radiance Field Training With Free Camera Trajectories

Peng Wang · Yuan Liu · Zhaoxi Chen · Lingjie Liu · Ziwei Liu · Taku Komura · Christian Theobalt · Wenping Wang

This paper presents a novel grid-based NeRF called F^2-NeRF (Fast-Free-NeRF) for novel view synthesis, which enables arbitrary input camera trajectories and only costs a few minutes for training. Existing fast grid-based NeRF training frameworks, like Instant-NGP, Plenoxels, DVGO, or TensoRF, are mainly designed for bounded scenes and rely on space warping to handle unbounded scenes. Existing two widely-used space-warping methods are only designed for the forward-facing trajectory or the 360° object-centric trajectory but cannot process arbitrary trajectories. In this paper, we delve deep into the mechanism of space warping to handle unbounded scenes. Based on our analysis, we further propose a novel space-warping method called perspective warping, which allows us to handle arbitrary trajectories in the grid-based NeRF framework. Extensive experiments demonstrate that F^2-NeRF is able to use the same perspective warping to render high-quality images on two standard datasets and a new free trajectory dataset collected by us.

NoPe-NeRF: Optimising Neural Radiance Field With No Pose Prior

Wenjing Bian · Zirui Wang · Kejie Li · Jia-Wang Bian · Victor Adrian Prisacariu

Training a Neural Radiance Field (NeRF) without pre-computed camera poses is challenging. Recent advances in this direction demonstrate the possibility of jointly optimising a NeRF and camera poses in forward-facing scenes. However, these methods still face difficulties during dramatic camera movement. We tackle this challenging problem by incorporating undistorted monocular depth priors. These priors are generated by correcting scale and shift parameters during training, with which we are then able to constrain the relative poses between consecutive frames. This constraint is achieved using our proposed novel loss functions. Experiments on real-world indoor and outdoor scenes show that our method can handle challenging camera trajectories and outperforms existing methods in terms of novel view rendering quality and pose estimation accuracy. Our project page is

BAD-NeRF: Bundle Adjusted Deblur Neural Radiance Fields

Peng Wang · Lingzhe Zhao · Ruijie Ma · Peidong Liu

Neural Radiance Fields (NeRF) have received considerable attention recently, due to its impressive capability in photo-realistic 3D reconstruction and novel view synthesis, given a set of posed camera images. Earlier work usually assumes the input images are of good quality. However, image degradation (e.g. image motion blur in low-light conditions) can easily happen in real-world scenarios, which would further affect the rendering quality of NeRF. In this paper, we present a novel bundle adjusted deblur Neural Radiance Fields (BAD-NeRF), which can be robust to severe motion blurred images and inaccurate camera poses. Our approach models the physical image formation process of a motion blurred image, and jointly learns the parameters of NeRF and recovers the camera motion trajectories during exposure time. In experiments, we show that by directly modeling the real physical image formation process, BAD-NeRF achieves superior performance over prior works on both synthetic and real datasets. Code and data are available at

DiffusioNeRF: Regularizing Neural Radiance Fields With Denoising Diffusion Models

Jamie Wynn · Daniyar Turmukhambetov

Under good conditions, Neural Radiance Fields (NeRFs) have shown impressive results on novel view synthesis tasks. NeRFs learn a scene’s color and density fields by minimizing the photometric discrepancy between training views and differentiable renderings of the scene. Once trained from a sufficient set of views, NeRFs can generate novel views from arbitrary camera positions. However, the scene geometry and color fields are severely under-constrained, which can lead to artifacts, especially when trained with few input views. To alleviate this problem we learn a prior over scene geometry and color, using a denoising diffusion model (DDM). Our DDM is trained on RGBD patches of the synthetic Hypersim dataset and can be used to predict the gradient of the logarithm of a joint probability distribution of color and depth patches. We show that, these gradients of logarithms of RGBD patch priors serve to regularize geometry and color of a scene. During NeRF training, random RGBD patches are rendered and the estimated gradient of the log-likelihood is backpropagated to the color and density fields. Evaluations on LLFF, the most relevant dataset, show that our learned prior achieves improved quality in the reconstructed geometry and improved generalization to novel views. Evaluations on DTU show improved reconstruction quality among NeRF methods.

SPARF: Neural Radiance Fields From Sparse and Noisy Poses

Prune Truong · Marie-Julie Rakotosaona · Fabian Manhardt · Federico Tombari

Neural Radiance Field (NeRF) has recently emerged as a powerful representation to synthesize photorealistic novel views. While showing impressive performance, it relies on the availability of dense input views with highly accurate camera poses, thus limiting its application in real-world scenarios. In this work, we introduce Sparse Pose Adjusting Radiance Field (SPARF), to address the challenge of novel-view synthesis given only few wide-baseline input images (as low as 3) with noisy camera poses. Our approach exploits multi-view geometry constraints in order to jointly learn the NeRF and refine the camera poses. By relying on pixel matches extracted between the input views, our multi-view correspondence objective enforces the optimized scene and camera poses to converge to a global and geometrically accurate solution. Our depth consistency loss further encourages the reconstructed scene to be consistent from any viewpoint. Our approach sets a new state of the art in the sparse-view regime on multiple challenging datasets.

Interactive Segmentation of Radiance Fields

Rahul Goel · Dhawal Sirikonda · Saurabh Saini · P. J. Narayanan

Radiance Fields (RF) are popular to represent casually-captured scenes for new view synthesis and several applications beyond it. Mixed reality on personal spaces needs understanding and manipulating scenes represented as RFs, with semantic segmentation of objects as an important step. Prior segmentation efforts show promise but don’t scale to complex objects with diverse appearance. We present the ISRF method to interactively segment objects with fine structure and appearance. Nearest neighbor feature matching using distilled semantic features identifies high-confidence seed regions. Bilateral search in a joint spatio-semantic space grows the region to recover accurate segmentation. We show state-of-the-art results of segmenting objects from RFs and compositing them to another scene, changing appearance, etc., and an interactive segmentation tool that others can use.

Temporal Interpolation Is All You Need for Dynamic Neural Radiance Fields

Sungheon Park · Minjung Son · Seokhwan Jang · Young Chun Ahn · Ji-Yeon Kim · Nahyup Kang

Temporal interpolation often plays a crucial role to learn meaningful representations in dynamic scenes. In this paper, we propose a novel method to train spatiotemporal neural radiance fields of dynamic scenes based on temporal interpolation of feature vectors. Two feature interpolation methods are suggested depending on underlying representations, neural networks or grids. In the neural representation, we extract features from space-time inputs via multiple neural network modules and interpolate them based on time frames. The proposed multi-level feature interpolation network effectively captures features of both short-term and long-term time ranges. In the grid representation, space-time features are learned via four-dimensional hash grids, which remarkably reduces training time. The grid representation shows more than 100 times faster training speed than the previous neural-net-based methods while maintaining the rendering quality. Concatenating static and dynamic features and adding a simple smoothness term further improve the performance of our proposed models. Despite the simplicity of the model architectures, our method achieved state-of-the-art performance both in rendering quality for the neural representation and in training speed for the grid representation.

Compressing Volumetric Radiance Fields to 1 MB

Lingzhi Li · Zhen Shen · Zhongshu Wang · Li Shen · Liefeng Bo

Approximating radiance fields with discretized volumetric grids is one of promising directions for improving NeRFs, represented by methods like DVGO, Plenoxels and TensoRF, which achieve super-fast training convergence and real-time rendering. However, these methods typically require a tremendous storage overhead, costing up to hundreds of megabytes of disk space and runtime memory for a single scene. We address this issue in this paper by introducing a simple yet effective framework, called vector quantized radiance fields (VQRF), for compressing these volume-grid-based radiance fields. We first present a robust and adaptive metric for estimating redundancy in grid models and performing voxel pruning by better exploring intermediate outputs of volumetric rendering. A trainable vector quantization is further proposed to improve the compactness of grid models. In combination with an efficient joint tuning strategy and post-processing, our method can achieve a compression ratio of 100× by reducing the overall model size to 1 MB with negligible loss on visual quality. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed framework is capable of achieving unrivaled performance and well generalization across multiple methods with distinct volumetric structures, facilitating the wide use of volumetric radiance fields methods in real-world applications. Code is available at

Multiscale Tensor Decomposition and Rendering Equation Encoding for View Synthesis

Kang Han · Wei Xiang

Rendering novel views from captured multi-view images has made considerable progress since the emergence of the neural radiance field. This paper aims to further advance the quality of view rendering by proposing a novel approach dubbed the neural radiance feature field (NRFF). We first propose a multiscale tensor decomposition scheme to organize learnable features so as to represent scenes from coarse to fine scales. We demonstrate many benefits of the proposed multiscale representation, including more accurate scene shape and appearance reconstruction, and faster convergence compared with the single-scale representation. Instead of encoding view directions to model view-dependent effects, we further propose to encode the rendering equation in the feature space by employing the anisotropic spherical Gaussian mixture predicted from the proposed multiscale representation. The proposed NRFF improves state-of-the-art rendering results by over 1 dB in PSNR on both the NeRF and NSVF synthetic datasets. A significant improvement has also been observed on the real-world Tanks & Temples dataset. Code can be found at

Ref-NPR: Reference-Based Non-Photorealistic Radiance Fields for Controllable Scene Stylization

Yuechen Zhang · Zexin He · Jinbo Xing · Xufeng Yao · Jiaya Jia

Current 3D scene stylization methods transfer textures and colors as styles using arbitrary style references, lacking meaningful semantic correspondences. We introduce Reference-Based Non-Photorealistic Radiance Fields (Ref-NPR) to address this limitation. This controllable method stylizes a 3D scene using radiance fields with a single stylized 2D view as a reference. We propose a ray registration process based on the stylized reference view to obtain pseudo-ray supervision in novel views. Then we exploit semantic correspondences in content images to fill occluded regions with perceptually similar styles, resulting in non-photorealistic and continuous novel view sequences. Our experimental results demonstrate that Ref-NPR outperforms existing scene and video stylization methods regarding visual quality and semantic correspondence. The code and data are publicly available on the project page at

Representing Volumetric Videos As Dynamic MLP Maps

Sida Peng · Yunzhi Yan · Qing Shuai · Hujun Bao · Xiaowei Zhou

This paper introduces a novel representation of volumetric videos for real-time view synthesis of dynamic scenes. Recent advances in neural scene representations demonstrate their remarkable capability to model and render complex static scenes, but extending them to represent dynamic scenes is not straightforward due to their slow rendering speed or high storage cost. To solve this problem, our key idea is to represent the radiance field of each frame as a set of shallow MLP networks whose parameters are stored in 2D grids, called MLP maps, and dynamically predicted by a 2D CNN decoder shared by all frames. Representing 3D scenes with shallow MLPs significantly improves the rendering speed, while dynamically predicting MLP parameters with a shared 2D CNN instead of explicitly storing them leads to low storage cost. Experiments show that the proposed approach achieves state-of-the-art rendering quality on the NHR and ZJU-MoCap datasets, while being efficient for real-time rendering with a speed of 41.7 fps for 512 × 512 images on an RTX 3090 GPU. The code is available at

Fast Monocular Scene Reconstruction With Global-Sparse Local-Dense Grids

Wei Dong · Christopher Choy · Charles Loop · Or Litany · Yuke Zhu · Anima Anandkumar

Indoor scene reconstruction from monocular images has long been sought after by augmented reality and robotics developers. Recent advances in neural field representations and monocular priors have led to remarkable results in scene-level surface reconstructions. The reliance on Multilayer Perceptrons (MLP), however, significantly limits speed in training and rendering. In this work, we propose to directly use signed distance function (SDF) in sparse voxel block grids for fast and accurate scene reconstruction without MLPs. Our globally sparse and locally dense data structure exploits surfaces’ spatial sparsity, enables cache-friendly queries, and allows direct extensions to multi-modal data such as color and semantic labels. To apply this representation to monocular scene reconstruction, we develop a scale calibration algorithm for fast geometric initialization from monocular depth priors. We apply differentiable volume rendering from this initialization to refine details with fast convergence. We also introduce efficient high-dimensional Continuous Random Fields (CRFs) to further exploit the semantic-geometry consistency between scene objects. Experiments show that our approach is 10× faster in training and 100× faster in rendering while achieving comparable accuracy to state-of-the-art neural implicit methods.

Award Candidate
DynIBaR: Neural Dynamic Image-Based Rendering

Zhengqi Li · Qianqian Wang · Forrester Cole · Richard Tucker · Noah Snavely

We address the problem of synthesizing novel views from a monocular video depicting a complex dynamic scene. State-of-the-art methods based on temporally varying Neural Radiance Fields (aka dynamic NeRFs) have shown impressive results on this task. However, for long videos with complex object motions and uncontrolled camera trajectories,these methods can produce blurry or inaccurate renderings, hampering their use in real-world applications. Instead of encoding the entire dynamic scene within the weights of MLPs, we present a new approach that addresses these limitations by adopting a volumetric image-based rendering framework that synthesizes new viewpoints by aggregating features from nearby views in a scene motion-aware manner.Our system retains the advantages of prior methods in its ability to model complex scenes and view-dependent effects,but also enables synthesizing photo-realistic novel views from long videos featuring complex scene dynamics with unconstrained camera trajectories. We demonstrate significant improvements over state-of-the-art methods on dynamic scene datasets, and also apply our approach to in-the-wild videos with challenging camera and object motion, where prior methods fail to produce high-quality renderings

Plateau-Reduced Differentiable Path Tracing

Michael Fischer · Tobias Ritschel

Current differentiable renderers provide light transport gradients with respect to arbitrary scene parameters. However, the mere existence of these gradients does not guarantee useful update steps in an optimization. Instead, inverse rendering might not converge due to inherent plateaus, i.e., regions of zero gradient, in the objective function. We propose to alleviate this by convolving the high-dimensional rendering function that maps scene parameters to images with an additional kernel that blurs the parameter space. We describe two Monte Carlo estimators to compute plateau-free gradients efficiently, i.e., with low variance, and show that these translate into net-gains in optimization error and runtime performance. Our approach is a straightforward extension to both black-box and differentiable renderers and enables the successful optimization of problems with intricate light transport, such as caustics or global illumination, that existing differentiable path tracers do not converge on. Our code is at

NeFII: Inverse Rendering for Reflectance Decomposition With Near-Field Indirect Illumination

Haoqian Wu · Zhipeng Hu · Lincheng Li · Yongqiang Zhang · Changjie Fan · Xin Yu

Inverse rendering methods aim to estimate geometry, materials and illumination from multi-view RGB images. In order to achieve better decomposition, recent approaches attempt to model indirect illuminations reflected from different materials via Spherical Gaussians (SG), which, however, tends to blur the high-frequency reflection details. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end inverse rendering pipeline that decomposes materials and illumination from multi-view images, while considering near-field indirect illumination. In a nutshell, we introduce the Monte Carlo sampling based path tracing and cache the indirect illumination as neural radiance, enabling a physics-faithful and easy-to-optimize inverse rendering method. To enhance efficiency and practicality, we leverage SG to represent the smooth environment illuminations and apply importance sampling techniques. To supervise indirect illuminations from unobserved directions, we develop a novel radiance consistency constraint between implicit neural radiance and path tracing results of unobserved rays along with the joint optimization of materials and illuminations, thus significantly improving the decomposition performance. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on multiple synthetic and real datasets, especially in terms of inter-reflection decomposition.

WildLight: In-the-Wild Inverse Rendering With a Flashlight

Ziang Cheng · Junxuan Li · Hongdong Li

This paper proposes a practical photometric solution for the challenging problem of in-the-wild inverse rendering under unknown ambient lighting. Our system recovers scene geometry and reflectance using only multi-view images captured by a smartphone. The key idea is to exploit smartphone’s built-in flashlight as a minimally controlled light source, and decompose image intensities into two photometric components -- a static appearance corresponds to ambient flux, plus a dynamic reflection induced by the moving flashlight. Our method does not require flash/non-flash images to be captured in pairs. Building on the success of neural light fields, we use an off-the-shelf method to capture the ambient reflections, while the flashlight component enables physically accurate photometric constraints to decouple reflectance and illumination. Compared to existing inverse rendering methods, our setup is applicable to non-darkroom environments yet sidesteps the inherent difficulties of explicit solving ambient reflections. We demonstrate by extensive experiments that our method is easy to implement, casual to set up, and consistently outperforms existing in-the-wild inverse rendering techniques. Finally, our neural reconstruction can be easily exported to PBR textured triangle mesh ready for industrial renderers. Our source code and data are released to

Relightable Neural Human Assets From Multi-View Gradient Illuminations

Taotao Zhou · Kai He · Di Wu · Teng Xu · Qixuan Zhang · Kuixiang Shao · Wenzheng Chen · Lan Xu · Jingyi Yu

Human modeling and relighting are two fundamental problems in computer vision and graphics, where high-quality datasets can largely facilitate related research. However, most existing human datasets only provide multi-view human images captured under the same illumination. Although valuable for modeling tasks, they are not readily used in relighting problems. To promote research in both fields, in this paper, we present UltraStage, a new 3D human dataset that contains more than 2,000 high-quality human assets captured under both multi-view and multi-illumination settings. Specifically, for each example, we provide 32 surrounding views illuminated with one white light and two gradient illuminations. In addition to regular multi-view images, gradient illuminations help recover detailed surface normal and spatially-varying material maps, enabling various relighting applications. Inspired by recent advances in neural representation, we further interpret each example into a neural human asset which allows novel view synthesis under arbitrary lighting conditions. We show our neural human assets can achieve extremely high capture performance and are capable of representing fine details such as facial wrinkles and cloth folds. We also validate UltraStage in single image relighting tasks, training neural networks with virtual relighted data from neural assets and demonstrating realistic rendering improvements over prior arts. UltraStage will be publicly available to the community to stimulate significant future developments in various human modeling and rendering tasks. The dataset is available at

DiffRF: Rendering-Guided 3D Radiance Field Diffusion

Norman Müller · Yawar Siddiqui · Lorenzo Porzi · Samuel Rota Bulò · Peter Kontschieder · Matthias Nießner

We introduce DiffRF, a novel approach for 3D radiance field synthesis based on denoising diffusion probabilistic models. While existing diffusion-based methods operate on images, latent codes, or point cloud data, we are the first to directly generate volumetric radiance fields. To this end, we propose a 3D denoising model which directly operates on an explicit voxel grid representation. However, as radiance fields generated from a set of posed images can be ambiguous and contain artifacts, obtaining ground truth radiance field samples is non-trivial. We address this challenge by pairing the denoising formulation with a rendering loss, enabling our model to learn a deviated prior that favours good image quality instead of trying to replicate fitting errors like floating artifacts. In contrast to 2D-diffusion models, our model learns multi-view consistent priors, enabling free-view synthesis and accurate shape generation. Compared to 3D GANs, our diffusion-based approach naturally enables conditional generation like masked completion or single-view 3D synthesis at inference time.

Analyzing Physical Impacts Using Transient Surface Wave Imaging

Tianyuan Zhang · Mark Sheinin · Dorian Chan · Mark Rau · Matthew O’Toole · Srinivasa G. Narasimhan

The subtle vibrations on an object’s surface contain information about the object’s physical properties and its interaction with the environment. Prior works imaged surface vibration to recover the object’s material properties via modal analysis, which discards the transient vibrations propagating immediately after the object is disturbed. Conversely, prior works that captured transient vibrations focused on recovering localized signals (e.g., recording nearby sound sources), neglecting the spatiotemporal relationship between vibrations at different object points. In this paper, we extract information from the transient surface vibrations simultaneously measured at a sparse set of object points using the dual-shutter camera described by Sheinin[31]. We model the geometry of an elastic wave generated shortly after an object’s surface is disturbed (e.g., a knock or a footstep), and use the model to localize the disturbance source for various materials (e.g., wood, plastic, tile). We also show that transient object vibrations contain additional cues about the impact force and the impacting object’s material properties. We demonstrate our approach in applications like localizing the strikes of a ping-pong ball on a table mid-play and recovering the footsteps’ locations by imaging the floor vibrations they create.

Neural Kaleidoscopic Space Sculpting

Byeongjoo Ahn · Michael De Zeeuw · Ioannis Gkioulekas · Aswin C. Sankaranarayanan

We introduce a method that recovers full-surround 3D reconstructions from a single kaleidoscopic image using a neural surface representation. Full-surround 3D reconstruction is critical for many applications, such as augmented and virtual reality. A kaleidoscope, which uses a single camera and multiple mirrors, is a convenient way of achieving full-surround coverage, as it redistributes light directions and thus captures multiple viewpoints in a single image. This enables single-shot and dynamic full-surround 3D reconstruction. However, using a kaleidoscopic image for multi-view stereo is challenging, as we need to decompose the image into multi-view images by identifying which pixel corresponds to which virtual camera, a process we call labeling. To address this challenge, pur approach avoids the need to explicitly estimate labels, but instead “sculpts” a neural surface representation through the careful use of silhouette, background, foreground, and texture information present in the kaleidoscopic image. We demonstrate the advantages of our method in a range of simulated and real experiments, on both static and dynamic scenes.

Towards Unbiased Volume Rendering of Neural Implicit Surfaces With Geometry Priors

Yongqiang Zhang · Zhipeng Hu · Haoqian Wu · Minda Zhao · Lincheng Li · Zhengxia Zou · Changjie Fan

Learning surface by neural implicit rendering has been a promising way for multi-view reconstruction in recent years. Existing neural surface reconstruction methods, such as NeuS and VolSDF, can produce reliable meshes from multi-view posed images. Although they build a bridge between volume rendering and Signed Distance Function (SDF), the accuracy is still limited. In this paper, we argue that this limited accuracy is due to the bias of their volume rendering strategies, especially when the viewing direction is close to be tangent to the surface. We revise and provide an additional condition for the unbiased volume rendering. Following this analysis, we propose a new rendering method by scaling the SDF field with the angle between the viewing direction and the surface normal vector. Experiments on simulated data indicate that our rendering method reduces the bias of SDF-based volume rendering. Moreover, there still exists non-negligible bias when the learnable standard deviation of SDF is large at early stage, which means that it is hard to supervise the rendered depth with depth priors. Alternatively we supervise zero-level set with surface points obtained from a pre-trained Multi-View Stereo network. We evaluate our method on the DTU dataset and show that it outperforms the state-of-the-arts neural implicit surface methods without mask supervision.

Neural Kernel Surface Reconstruction

Jiahui Huang · Zan Gojcic · Matan Atzmon · Or Litany · Sanja Fidler · Francis Williams

We present a novel method for reconstructing a 3D implicit surface from a large-scale, sparse, and noisy point cloud. Our approach builds upon the recently introduced Neural Kernel Fields (NKF) representation. It enjoys similar generalization capabilities to NKF, while simultaneously addressing its main limitations: (a) We can scale to large scenes through compactly supported kernel functions, which enable the use of memory-efficient sparse linear solvers. (b) We are robust to noise, through a gradient fitting solve. (c) We minimize training requirements, enabling us to learn from any dataset of dense oriented points, and even mix training data consisting of objects and scenes at different scales. Our method is capable of reconstructing millions of points in a few seconds, and handling very large scenes in an out-of-core fashion. We achieve state-of-the-art results on reconstruction benchmarks consisting of single objects (ShapeNet, ABC), indoor scenes (ScanNet, Matterport3D), and outdoor scenes (CARLA, Waymo).

MM-3DScene: 3D Scene Understanding by Customizing Masked Modeling With Informative-Preserved Reconstruction and Self-Distilled Consistency

Mingye Xu · Mutian Xu · Tong He · Wanli Ouyang · Yali Wang · Xiaoguang Han · Yu Qiao

Masked Modeling (MM) has demonstrated widespread success in various vision challenges, by reconstructing masked visual patches. Yet, applying MM for large-scale 3D scenes remains an open problem due to the data sparsity and scene complexity. The conventional random masking paradigm used in 2D images often causes a high risk of ambiguity when recovering the masked region of 3D scenes. To this end, we propose a novel informative-preserved reconstruction, which explores local statistics to discover and preserve the representative structured points, effectively enhancing the pretext masking task for 3D scene understanding. Integrated with a progressive reconstruction manner, our method can concentrate on modeling regional geometry and enjoy less ambiguity for masked reconstruction. Besides, such scenes with progressive masking ratios can also serve to self-distill their intrinsic spatial consistency, requiring to learn the consistent representations from unmasked areas. By elegantly combining informative-preserved reconstruction on masked areas and consistency self-distillation from unmasked areas, a unified framework called MM-3DScene is yielded. We conduct comprehensive experiments on a host of downstream tasks. The consistent improvement (e.g., +6.1% mAP@0.5 on object detection and +2.2% mIoU on semantic segmentation) demonstrates the superiority of our approach.

Shape, Pose, and Appearance From a Single Image via Bootstrapped Radiance Field Inversion

Dario Pavllo · David Joseph Tan · Marie-Julie Rakotosaona · Federico Tombari

Neural Radiance Fields (NeRF) coupled with GANs represent a promising direction in the area of 3D reconstruction from a single view, owing to their ability to efficiently model arbitrary topologies. Recent work in this area, however, has mostly focused on synthetic datasets where exact ground-truth poses are known, and has overlooked pose estimation, which is important for certain downstream applications such as augmented reality (AR) and robotics. We introduce a principled end-to-end reconstruction framework for natural images, where accurate ground-truth poses are not available. Our approach recovers an SDF-parameterized 3D shape, pose, and appearance from a single image of an object, without exploiting multiple views during training. More specifically, we leverage an unconditional 3D-aware generator, to which we apply a hybrid inversion scheme where a model produces a first guess of the solution which is then refined via optimization. Our framework can de-render an image in as few as 10 steps, enabling its use in practical scenarios. We demonstrate state-of-the-art results on a variety of real and synthetic benchmarks.

DisCoScene: Spatially Disentangled Generative Radiance Fields for Controllable 3D-Aware Scene Synthesis

Yinghao Xu · Menglei Chai · Zifan Shi · Sida Peng · Ivan Skorokhodov · Aliaksandr Siarohin · Ceyuan Yang · Yujun Shen · Hsin-Ying Lee · Bolei Zhou · Sergey Tulyakov

Existing 3D-aware image synthesis approaches mainly focus on generating a single canonical object and show limited capacity in composing a complex scene containing a variety of objects. This work presents DisCoScene: a 3D-aware generative model for high-quality and controllable scene synthesis. The key ingredient of our method is a very abstract object-level representation (i.e., 3D bounding boxes without semantic annotation) as the scene layout prior, which is simple to obtain, general to describe various scene contents, and yet informative to disentangle objects and background. Moreover, it serves as an intuitive user control for scene editing. Based on such a prior, the proposed model spatially disentangles the whole scene into object-centric generative radiance fields by learning on only 2D images with the global-local discrimination. Our model obtains the generation fidelity and editing flexibility of individual objects while being able to efficiently compose objects and the background into a complete scene. We demonstrate state-of-the-art performance on many scene datasets, including the challenging Waymo outdoor dataset. Our code will be made publicly available.

Heat Diffusion Based Multi-Scale and Geometric Structure-Aware Transformer for Mesh Segmentation

Chi-Chong Wong

Triangle mesh segmentation is an important task in 3D shape analysis, especially in applications such as digital humans and AR/VR. Transformer model is inherently permutation-invariant to input, which makes it a suitable candidate model for 3D mesh processing. However, two main challenges involved in adapting Transformer from natural languages to 3D mesh are yet to be solved, such as i) extracting the multi-scale information of mesh data in an adaptive manner; ii) capturing geometric structures of mesh data as the discriminative characteristics of the shape. Current point based Transformer models fail to tackle such challenges and thus provide inferior performance for discretized surface segmentation. In this work, heat diffusion based method is exploited to tackle these problems. A novel Transformer model called MeshFormer is proposed, which i) integrates Heat Diffusion method into Multi-head Self-Attention operation (HDMSA) to adaptively capture the features from local neighborhood to global contexts; ii) applies a novel Heat Kernel Signature based Structure Encoding (HKSSE) to embed the intrinsic geometric structures of mesh instances into Transformer for structure-aware processing. Extensive experiments on triangle mesh segmentation validate the effectiveness of the proposed MeshFormer model and show significant improvements over current state-of-the-art methods.

Learning Detailed Radiance Manifolds for High-Fidelity and 3D-Consistent Portrait Synthesis From Monocular Image

Yu Deng · Baoyuan Wang · Heung-Yeung Shum

A key challenge for novel view synthesis of monocular portrait images is 3D consistency under continuous pose variations. Most existing methods rely on 2D generative models which often leads to obvious 3D inconsistency artifacts. We present a 3D-consistent novel view synthesis approach for monocular portrait images based on a recent proposed 3D-aware GAN, namely Generative Radiance Manifolds (GRAM), which has shown strong 3D consistency at multiview image generation of virtual subjects via the radiance manifolds representation. However, simply learning an encoder to map a real image into the latent space of GRAM can only reconstruct coarse radiance manifolds without faithful fine details, while improving the reconstruction fidelity via instance-specific optimization is time-consuming. We introduce a novel detail manifolds reconstructor to learn 3D-consistent fine details on the radiance manifolds from monocular images, and combine them with the coarse radiance manifolds for high-fidelity reconstruction. The 3D priors derived from the coarse radiance manifolds are used to regulate the learned details to ensure reasonable synthesized results at novel views. Trained on in-the-wild 2D images, our method achieves high-fidelity and 3D-consistent portrait synthesis largely outperforming the prior art. Project page:

3D-Aware Conditional Image Synthesis

Kangle Deng · Gengshan Yang · Deva Ramanan · Jun-Yan Zhu

We propose pix2pix3D, a 3D-aware conditional generative model for controllable photorealistic image synthesis. Given a 2D label map, such as a segmentation or edge map, our model learns to synthesize a corresponding image from different viewpoints. To enable explicit 3D user control, we extend conditional generative models with neural radiance fields. Given widely-available posed monocular image and label map pairs, our model learns to assign a label to every 3D point in addition to color and density, which enables it to render the image and pixel-aligned label map simultaneously. Finally, we build an interactive system that allows users to edit the label map from different viewpoints and generate outputs accordingly.

VIVE3D: Viewpoint-Independent Video Editing Using 3D-Aware GANs

Anna Frühstück · Nikolaos Sarafianos · Yuanlu Xu · Peter Wonka · Tony Tung

We introduce VIVE3D, a novel approach that extends the capabilities of image-based 3D GANs to video editing and is able to represent the input video in an identity-preserving and temporally consistent way. We propose two new building blocks. First, we introduce a novel GAN inversion technique specifically tailored to 3D GANs by jointly embedding multiple frames and optimizing for the camera parameters. Second, besides traditional semantic face edits (e.g. for age and expression), we are the first to demonstrate edits that show novel views of the head enabled by the inherent properties of 3D GANs and our optical flow-guided compositing technique to combine the head with the background video. Our experiments demonstrate that VIVE3D generates high-fidelity face edits at consistent quality from a range of camera viewpoints which are composited with the original video in a temporally and spatially-consistent manner.

SDFusion: Multimodal 3D Shape Completion, Reconstruction, and Generation

Yen-Chi Cheng · Hsin-Ying Lee · Sergey Tulyakov · Alexander G. Schwing · Liang-Yan Gui

In this work, we present a novel framework built to simplify 3D asset generation for amateur users. To enable interactive generation, our method supports a variety of input modalities that can be easily provided by a human, including images, texts, partially observed shapes and combinations of these, further allowing for adjusting the strength of each input. At the core of our approach is an encoder-decoder, compressing 3D shapes into a compact latent representation, upon which a diffusion model is learned. To enable a variety of multi-modal inputs, we employ task-specific encoders with dropout followed by a cross-attention mechanism. Due to its flexibility, our model naturally supports a variety of tasks outperforming prior works on shape completion, image-based 3D reconstruction, and text-to-3D. Most interestingly, our model can combine all these tasks into one swiss-army-knife tool, enabling the user to perform shape generation using incomplete shapes, images, and textual descriptions at the same time, providing the relative weights for each input and facilitating interactivity. Despite our approach being shape-only, we further show an efficient method to texture the generated using large-scale text-to-image models.

Generating Part-Aware Editable 3D Shapes Without 3D Supervision

Konstantinos Tertikas · Despoina Paschalidou · Boxiao Pan · Jeong Joon Park · Mikaela Angelina Uy · Ioannis Emiris · Yannis Avrithis · Leonidas Guibas

Impressive progress in generative models and implicit representations gave rise to methods that can generate 3D shapes of high quality. However, being able to locally control and edit shapes is another essential property that can unlock several content creation applications. Local control can be achieved with part-aware models, but existing methods require 3D supervision and cannot produce textures. In this work, we devise PartNeRF, a novel part-aware generative model for editable 3D shape synthesis that does not require any explicit 3D supervision. Our model generates objects as a set of locally defined NeRFs, augmented with an affine transformation. This enables several editing operations such as applying transformations on parts, mixing parts from different objects etc. To ensure distinct, manipulable parts we enforce a hard assignment of rays to parts that makes sure that the color of each ray is only determined by a single NeRF. As a result, altering one part does not affect the appearance of the others. Evaluations on various ShapeNet categories demonstrate the ability of our model to generate editable 3D objects of improved fidelity, compared to previous part-based generative approaches that require 3D supervision or models relying on NeRFs.

NeuralLift-360: Lifting an In-the-Wild 2D Photo to a 3D Object With 360° Views

Dejia Xu · Yifan Jiang · Peihao Wang · Zhiwen Fan · Yi Wang · Zhangyang Wang

Virtual reality and augmented reality (XR) bring increasing demand for 3D content generation. However, creating high-quality 3D content requires tedious work from a human expert. In this work, we study the challenging task of lifting a single image to a 3D object and, for the first time, demonstrate the ability to generate a plausible 3D object with 360° views that corresponds well with the given reference image. By conditioning on the reference image, our model can fulfill the everlasting curiosity for synthesizing novel views of objects from images. Our technique sheds light on a promising direction of easing the workflows for 3D artists and XR designers. We propose a novel framework, dubbed NeuralLift-360, that utilizes a depth-aware neural radiance representation (NeRF) and learns to craft the scene guided by denoising diffusion models. By introducing a ranking loss, our NeuralLift-360 can be guided with rough depth estimation in the wild. We also adopt a CLIP-guided sampling strategy for the diffusion prior to provide coherent guidance. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our NeuralLift-360 significantly outperforms existing state-of-the-art baselines. Project page:

Implicit Identity Driven Deepfake Face Swapping Detection

Baojin Huang · Zhongyuan Wang · Jifan Yang · Jiaxin Ai · Qin Zou · Qian Wang · Dengpan Ye

In this paper, we consider the face swapping detection from the perspective of face identity. Face swapping aims to replace the target face with the source face and generate the fake face that the human cannot distinguish between real and fake. We argue that the fake face contains the explicit identity and implicit identity, which respectively corresponds to the identity of the source face and target face during face swapping. Note that the explicit identities of faces can be extracted by regular face recognizers. Particularly, the implicit identity of real face is consistent with the its explicit identity. Thus the difference between explicit and implicit identity of face facilitates face swapping detection. Following this idea, we propose a novel implicit identity driven framework for face swapping detection. Specifically, we design an explicit identity contrast (EIC) loss and an implicit identity exploration (IIE) loss, which supervises a CNN backbone to embed face images into the implicit identity space. Under the guidance of EIC, real samples are pulled closer to their explicit identities, while fake samples are pushed away from their explicit identities. Moreover, IIE is derived from the margin-based classification loss function, which encourages the fake faces with known target identities to enjoy intra-class compactness and inter-class diversity. Extensive experiments and visualizations on several datasets demonstrate the generalization of our method against the state-of-the-art counterparts.

Canonical Fields: Self-Supervised Learning of Pose-Canonicalized Neural Fields

Rohith Agaram · Shaurya Dewan · Rahul Sajnani · Adrien Poulenard · Madhava Krishna · Srinath Sridhar

Coordinate-based implicit neural networks, or neural fields, have emerged as useful representations of shape and appearance in 3D computer vision. Despite advances however, it remains challenging to build neural fields for categories of objects without datasets like ShapeNet that provide “canonicalized” object instances that are consistently aligned for their 3D position and orientation (pose). We present Canonical Field Network (CaFi-Net), a self-supervised method to canonicalize the 3D pose of instances from an object category represented as neural fields, specifically neural radiance fields (NeRFs). CaFi-Net directly learns from continuous and noisy radiance fields using a Siamese network architecture that is designed to extract equivariant field features for category-level canonicalization. During inference, our method takes pre-trained neural radiance fields of novel object instances at arbitrary 3D pose, and estimates a canonical field with consistent 3D pose across the entire category. Extensive experiments on a new dataset of 1300 NeRF models across 13 object categories show that our method matches or exceeds the performance of 3D point cloud-based methods.

Improving Fairness in Facial Albedo Estimation via Visual-Textual Cues

Xingyu Ren · Jiankang Deng · Chao Ma · Yichao Yan · Xiaokang Yang

Recent 3D face reconstruction methods have made significant advances in geometry prediction, yet further cosmetic improvements are limited by lagged albedo because inferring albedo from appearance is an ill-posed problem. Although some existing methods consider prior knowledge from illumination to improve albedo estimation, they still produce a light-skin bias due to racially biased albedo models and limited light constraints. In this paper, we reconsider the relationship between albedo and face attributes and propose an ID2Albedo to directly estimate albedo without constraining illumination. Our key insight is that intrinsic semantic attributes such as race, skin color, and age can constrain the albedo map. We first introduce visual-textual cues and design a semantic loss to supervise facial albedo estimation. Specifically, we pre-define text labels such as race, skin color, age, and wrinkles. Then, we employ the text-image model (CLIP) to compute the similarity between the text and the input image, and assign a pseudo-label to each facial image. We constrain generated albedos in the training phase to have the same attributes as the inputs. In addition, we train a high-quality, unbiased facial albedo generator and utilize the semantic loss to learn the mapping from illumination-robust identity features to the albedo latent codes. Finally, our ID2Albedo is trained in a self-supervised way and outperforms state-of-the-art albedo estimation methods in terms of accuracy and fidelity. It is worth mentioning that our approach has excellent generalizability and fairness, especially on in-the-wild data.

High-Fidelity 3D Face Generation From Natural Language Descriptions

Menghua Wu · Hao Zhu · Linjia Huang · Yiyu Zhuang · Yuanxun Lu · Xun Cao

Synthesizing high-quality 3D face models from natural language descriptions is very valuable for many applications, including avatar creation, virtual reality, and telepresence. However, little research ever tapped into this task. We argue the major obstacle lies in 1) the lack of high-quality 3D face data with descriptive text annotation, and 2) the complex mapping relationship between descriptive language space and shape/appearance space. To solve these problems, we build DESCRIBE3D dataset, the first large-scale dataset with fine-grained text descriptions for text-to-3D face generation task. Then we propose a two-stage framework to first generate a 3D face that matches the concrete descriptions, then optimize the parameters in the 3D shape and texture space with abstract description to refine the 3D face model. Extensive experimental results show that our method can produce a faithful 3D face that conforms to the input descriptions with higher accuracy and quality than previous methods. The code and DESCRIBE3D dataset are released at

DSFNet: Dual Space Fusion Network for Occlusion-Robust 3D Dense Face Alignment

Heyuan Li · Bo Wang · Yu Cheng · Mohan Kankanhalli · Robby T. Tan

Sensitivity to severe occlusion and large view angles limits the usage scenarios of the existing monocular 3D dense face alignment methods. The state-of-the-art 3DMM-based method, directly regresses the model’s coefficients, underutilizing the low-level 2D spatial and semantic information, which can actually offer cues for face shape and orientation. In this work, we demonstrate how modeling 3D facial geometry in image and model space jointly can solve the occlusion and view angle problems. Instead of predicting the whole face directly, we regress image space features in the visible facial region by dense prediction first. Subsequently, we predict our model’s coefficients based on the regressed feature of the visible regions, leveraging the prior knowledge of whole face geometry from the morphable models to complete the invisible regions. We further propose a fusion network that combines the advantages of both the image and model space predictions to achieve high robustness and accuracy in unconstrained scenarios. Thanks to the proposed fusion module, our method is robust not only to occlusion and large pitch and roll view angles, which is the benefit of our image space approach, but also to noise and large yaw angles, which is the benefit of our model space method. Comprehensive evaluations demonstrate the superior performance of our method compared with the state-of-the-art methods. On the 3D dense face alignment task, we achieve 3.80% NME on the AFLW2000-3D dataset, which outperforms the state-of-the-art method by 5.5%. Code is available at

High-Fidelity Facial Avatar Reconstruction From Monocular Video With Generative Priors

Yunpeng Bai · Yanbo Fan · Xuan Wang · Yong Zhang · Jingxiang Sun · Chun Yuan · Ying Shan

High-fidelity facial avatar reconstruction from a monocular video is a significant research problem in computer graphics and computer vision. Recently, Neural Radiance Field (NeRF) has shown impressive novel view rendering results and has been considered for facial avatar reconstruction. However, the complex facial dynamics and missing 3D information in monocular videos raise significant challenges for faithful facial reconstruction. In this work, we propose a new method for NeRF-based facial avatar reconstruction that utilizes 3D-aware generative prior. Different from existing works that depend on a conditional deformation field for dynamic modeling, we propose to learn a personalized generative prior, which is formulated as a local and low dimensional subspace in the latent space of 3D-GAN. We propose an efficient method to construct the personalized generative prior based on a small set of facial images of a given individual. After learning, it allows for photo-realistic rendering with novel views, and the face reenactment can be realized by performing navigation in the latent space. Our proposed method is applicable for different driven signals, including RGB images, 3DMM coefficients, and audio. Compared with existing works, we obtain superior novel view synthesis results and faithfully face reenactment performance. The code is available here

3DAvatarGAN: Bridging Domains for Personalized Editable Avatars

Rameen Abdal · Hsin-Ying Lee · Peihao Zhu · Menglei Chai · Aliaksandr Siarohin · Peter Wonka · Sergey Tulyakov

Modern 3D-GANs synthesize geometry and texture by training on large-scale datasets with a consistent structure. Training such models on stylized, artistic data, with often unknown, highly variable geometry, and camera information has not yet been shown possible. Can we train a 3D GAN on such artistic data, while maintaining multi-view consistency and texture quality? To this end, we propose an adaptation framework, where the source domain is a pre-trained 3D-GAN, while the target domain is a 2D-GAN trained on artistic datasets. We, then, distill the knowledge from a 2D generator to the source 3D generator. To do that, we first propose an optimization-based method to align the distributions of camera parameters across domains. Second, we propose regularizations necessary to learn high-quality texture, while avoiding degenerate geometric solutions, such as flat shapes. Third, we show a deformation-based technique for modeling exaggerated geometry of artistic domains, enabling---as a byproduct---personalized geometric editing. Finally, we propose a novel inversion method for 3D-GANs linking the latent spaces of the source and the target domains. Our contributions---for the first time---allow for the generation, editing, and animation of personalized artistic 3D avatars on artistic datasets.

RODIN: A Generative Model for Sculpting 3D Digital Avatars Using Diffusion

Tengfei Wang · Bo Zhang · Ting Zhang · Shuyang Gu · Jianmin Bao · Tadas Baltrusaitis · Jingjing Shen · Dong Chen · Fang Wen · Qifeng Chen · Baining Guo

This paper presents a 3D diffusion model that automatically generates 3D digital avatars represented as neural radiance fields (NeRFs). A significant challenge for 3D diffusion is that the memory and processing costs are prohibitive for producing high-quality results with rich details. To tackle this problem, we propose the roll-out diffusion network (RODIN), which takes a 3D NeRF model represented as multiple 2D feature maps and rolls out them onto a single 2D feature plane within which we perform 3D-aware diffusion. The RODIN model brings much-needed computational efficiency while preserving the integrity of 3D diffusion by using 3D-aware convolution that attends to projected features in the 2D plane according to their original relationships in 3D. We also use latent conditioning to orchestrate the feature generation with global coherence, leading to high-fidelity avatars and enabling semantic editing based on text prompts. Finally, we use hierarchical synthesis to further enhance details. The 3D avatars generated by our model compare favorably with those produced by existing techniques. We can generate highly detailed avatars with realistic hairstyles and facial hair. We also demonstrate 3D avatar generation from image or text, as well as text-guided editability.

Instant Volumetric Head Avatars

Wojciech Zielonka · Timo Bolkart · Justus Thies

We present Instant Volumetric Head Avatars (INSTA), a novel approach for reconstructing photo-realistic digital avatars instantaneously. INSTA models a dynamic neural radiance field based on neural graphics primitives embedded around a parametric face model. Our pipeline is trained on a single monocular RGB portrait video that observes the subject under different expressions and views. While state-of-the-art methods take up to several days to train an avatar, our method can reconstruct a digital avatar in less than 10 minutes on modern GPU hardware, which is orders of magnitude faster than previous solutions. In addition, it allows for the interactive rendering of novel poses and expressions. By leveraging the geometry prior of the underlying parametric face model, we demonstrate that INSTA extrapolates to unseen poses. In quantitative and qualitative studies on various subjects, INSTA outperforms state-of-the-art methods regarding rendering quality and training time. Project website:

Synthesizing Photorealistic Virtual Humans Through Cross-Modal Disentanglement

Siddarth Ravichandran · Ondřej Texler · Dimitar Dinev · Hyun Jae Kang

Over the last few decades, many aspects of human life have been enhanced with virtual domains, from the advent of digital assistants such as Amazon’s Alexa and Apple’s Siri to the latest metaverse efforts of the rebranded Meta. These trends underscore the importance of generating photorealistic visual depictions of humans. This has led to the rapid growth of so-called deepfake and talking-head generation methods in recent years. Despite their impressive results and popularity, they usually lack certain qualitative aspects such as texture quality, lips synchronization, or resolution, and practical aspects such as the ability to run in real-time. To allow for virtual human avatars to be used in practical scenarios, we propose an end-to-end framework for synthesizing high-quality virtual human faces capable of speaking with accurate lip motion with a special emphasis on performance. We introduce a novel network utilizing visemes as an intermediate audio representation and a novel data augmentation strategy employing a hierarchical image synthesis approach that allows disentanglement of the different modalities used to control the global head motion. Our method runs in real-time, and is able to deliver superior results compared to the current state-of-the-art.

3D Cinemagraphy From a Single Image

Xingyi Li · Zhiguo Cao · Huiqiang Sun · Jianming Zhang · Ke Xian · Guosheng Lin

We present 3D Cinemagraphy, a new technique that marries 2D image animation with 3D photography. Given a single still image as input, our goal is to generate a video that contains both visual content animation and camera motion. We empirically find that naively combining existing 2D image animation and 3D photography methods leads to obvious artifacts or inconsistent animation. Our key insight is that representing and animating the scene in 3D space offers a natural solution to this task. To this end, we first convert the input image into feature-based layered depth images using predicted depth values, followed by unprojecting them to a feature point cloud. To animate the scene, we perform motion estimation and lift the 2D motion into the 3D scene flow. Finally, to resolve the problem of hole emergence as points move forward, we propose to bidirectionally displace the point cloud as per the scene flow and synthesize novel views by separately projecting them into target image planes and blending the results. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. A user study is also conducted to validate the compelling rendering results of our method.

TryOnDiffusion: A Tale of Two UNets

Luyang Zhu · Dawei Yang · Tyler Zhu · Fitsum Reda · William Chan · Chitwan Saharia · Mohammad Norouzi · Ira Kemelmacher-Shlizerman

Given two images depicting a person and a garment worn by another person, our goal is to generate a visualization of how the garment might look on the input person. A key challenge is to synthesize a photorealistic detail-preserving visualization of the garment, while warping the garment to accommodate a significant body pose and shape change across the subjects. Previous methods either focus on garment detail preservation without effective pose and shape variation, or allow try-on with the desired shape and pose but lack garment details. In this paper, we propose a diffusion-based architecture that unifies two UNets (referred to as Parallel-UNet), which allows us to preserve garment details and warp the garment for significant pose and body change in a single network. The key ideas behind Parallel-UNet include: 1) garment is warped implicitly via a cross attention mechanism, 2) garment warp and person blend happen as part of a unified process as opposed to a sequence of two separate tasks. Experimental results indicate that TryOnDiffusion achieves state-of-the-art performance both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Diverse 3D Hand Gesture Prediction From Body Dynamics by Bilateral Hand Disentanglement

Xingqun Qi · Chen Liu · Muyi Sun · Lincheng Li · Changjie Fan · Xin Yu

Predicting natural and diverse 3D hand gestures from the upper body dynamics is a practical yet challenging task in virtual avatar creation. Previous works usually overlook the asymmetric motions between two hands and generate two hands in a holistic manner, leading to unnatural results. In this work, we introduce a novel bilateral hand disentanglement based two-stage 3D hand generation method to achieve natural and diverse 3D hand prediction from body dynamics. In the first stage, we intend to generate natural hand gestures by two hand-disentanglement branches. Considering the asymmetric gestures and motions of two hands, we introduce a Spatial-Residual Memory (SRM) module to model spatial interaction between the body and each hand by residual learning. To enhance the coordination of two hand motions wrt. body dynamics holistically, we then present a Temporal-Motion Memory (TMM) module. TMM can effectively model the temporal association between body dynamics and two hand motions. The second stage is built upon the insight that 3D hand predictions should be non-deterministic given the sequential body postures. Thus, we further diversify our 3D hand predictions based on the initial output from the stage one. Concretely, we propose a Prototypical-Memory Sampling Strategy (PSS) to generate the non-deterministic hand gestures by gradient-based Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art models on the B2H dataset and our newly collected TED Hands dataset. The dataset and code are available at:

Normal-Guided Garment UV Prediction for Human Re-Texturing

Yasamin Jafarian · Tuanfeng Y. Wang · Duygu Ceylan · Jimei Yang · Nathan Carr · Yi Zhou · Hyun Soo Park

Clothes undergo complex geometric deformations, which lead to appearance changes. To edit human videos in a physically plausible way, a texture map must take into account not only the garment transformation induced by the body movements and clothes fitting, but also its 3D fine-grained surface geometry. This poses, however, a new challenge of 3D reconstruction of dynamic clothes from an image or a video. In this paper, we show that it is possible to edit dressed human images and videos without 3D reconstruction. We estimate a geometry aware texture map between the garment region in an image and the texture space, a.k.a, UV map. Our UV map is designed to preserve isometry with respect to the underlying 3D surface by making use of the 3D surface normals predicted from the image. Our approach captures the underlying geometry of the garment in a self-supervised way, requiring no ground truth annotation of UV maps and can be readily extended to predict temporally coherent UV maps. We demonstrate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art human UV map estimation approaches on both real and synthetic data.

REC-MV: REconstructing 3D Dynamic Cloth From Monocular Videos

Lingteng Qiu · Guanying Chen · Jiapeng Zhou · Mutian Xu · Junle Wang · Xiaoguang Han

Reconstructing dynamic 3D garment surfaces with open boundaries from monocular videos is an important problem as it provides a practical and low-cost solution for clothes digitization. Recent neural rendering methods achieve high-quality dynamic clothed human reconstruction results from monocular video, but these methods cannot separate the garment surface from the body. Moreover, despite existing garment reconstruction methods based on feature curve representation demonstrating impressive results for garment reconstruction from a single image, they struggle to generate temporally consistent surfaces for the video input. To address the above limitations, in this paper, we formulate this task as an optimization problem of 3D garment feature curves and surface reconstruction from monocular video. We introduce a novel approach, called REC-MV to jointly optimize the explicit feature curves and the implicit signed distance field (SDF) of the garments. Then the open garment meshes can be extracted via garment template registration in the canonical space. Experiments on multiple casually captured datasets show that our approach outperforms existing methods and can produce high-quality dynamic garment surfaces.

SeSDF: Self-Evolved Signed Distance Field for Implicit 3D Clothed Human Reconstruction

Yukang Cao · Kai Han · Kwan-Yee K. Wong

We address the problem of clothed human reconstruction from a single image or uncalibrated multi-view images. Existing methods struggle with reconstructing detailed geometry of a clothed human and often require a calibrated setting for multi-view reconstruction. We propose a flexible framework which, by leveraging the parametric SMPL-X model, can take an arbitrary number of input images to reconstruct a clothed human model under an uncalibrated setting. At the core of our framework is our novel self-evolved signed distance field (SeSDF) module which allows the framework to learn to deform the signed distance field (SDF) derived from the fitted SMPL-X model, such that detailed geometry reflecting the actual clothed human can be encoded for better reconstruction. Besides, we propose a simple method for self-calibration of multi-view images via the fitted SMPL-X parameters. This lifts the requirement of tedious manual calibration and largely increases the flexibility of our method. Further, we introduce an effective occlusion-aware feature fusion strategy to account for the most useful features to reconstruct the human model. We thoroughly evaluate our framework on public benchmarks, demonstrating significant superiority over the state-of-the-arts both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Unsupervised Volumetric Animation

Aliaksandr Siarohin · Willi Menapace · Ivan Skorokhodov · Kyle Olszewski · Jian Ren · Hsin-Ying Lee · Menglei Chai · Sergey Tulyakov

We propose a novel approach for unsupervised 3D animation of non-rigid deformable objects. Our method learns the 3D structure and dynamics of objects solely from single-view RGB videos, and can decompose them into semantically meaningful parts that can be tracked and animated. Using a 3D autodecoder framework, paired with a keypoint estimator via a differentiable PnP algorithm, our model learns the underlying object geometry and parts decomposition in an entirely unsupervised manner. This allows it to perform 3D segmentation, 3D keypoint estimation, novel view synthesis, and animation. We primarily evaluate the framework on two video datasets: VoxCeleb 256^2 and TEDXPeople 256^2. In addition, on the Cats 256^2 dataset, we show that it learns compelling 3D geometry even from raw image data. Finally, we show that our model can obtain animatable 3D objects from a singe or a few images.

Handy: Towards a High Fidelity 3D Hand Shape and Appearance Model

Rolandos Alexandros Potamias · Stylianos Ploumpis · Stylianos Moschoglou · Vasileios Triantafyllou · Stefanos Zafeiriou

Over the last few years, with the advent of virtual and augmented reality, an enormous amount of research has been focused on modeling, tracking and reconstructing human hands. Given their power to express human behavior, hands have been a very important, but challenging component of the human body. Currently, most of the state-of-the-art reconstruction and pose estimation methods rely on the low polygon MANO model. Apart from its low polygon count, MANO model was trained with only 31 adult subjects, which not only limits its expressive power but also imposes unnecessary shape reconstruction constraints on pose estimation methods. Moreover, hand appearance remains almost unexplored and neglected from the majority of hand reconstruction methods. In this work, we propose “Handy”, a large-scale model of the human hand, modeling both shape and appearance composed of over 1200 subjects which we make publicly available for the benefit of the research community. In contrast to current models, our proposed hand model was trained on a dataset with large diversity in age, gender, and ethnicity, which tackles the limitations of MANO and accurately reconstructs out-of-distribution samples. In order to create a high quality texture model, we trained a powerful GAN, which preserves high frequency details and is able to generate high resolution hand textures. To showcase the capabilities of the proposed model, we built a synthetic dataset of textured hands and trained a hand pose estimation network to reconstruct both the shape and appearance from single images. As it is demonstrated in an extensive series of quantitative as well as qualitative experiments, our model proves to be robust against the state-of-the-art and realistically captures the 3D hand shape and pose along with a high frequency detailed texture even in adverse “in-the-wild” conditions.

Fantastic Breaks: A Dataset of Paired 3D Scans of Real-World Broken Objects and Their Complete Counterparts

Nikolas Lamb · Cameron Palmer · Benjamin Molloy · Sean Banerjee · Natasha Kholgade Banerjee

Automated shape repair approaches currently lack access to datasets that describe real-world damaged geometry. We present Fantastic Breaks (and Where to Find Them:, a dataset containing scanned, waterproofed, and cleaned 3D meshes for 150 broken objects, paired and geometrically aligned with complete counterparts. Fantastic Breaks contains class and material labels, proxy repair parts that join to broken meshes to generate complete meshes, and manually annotated fracture boundaries. Through a detailed analysis of fracture geometry, we reveal differences between Fantastic Breaks and synthetic fracture datasets generated using geometric and physics-based methods. We show experimental shape repair evaluation with Fantastic Breaks using multiple learning-based approaches pre-trained with synthetic datasets and re-trained with subset of Fantastic Breaks.

Distilling Neural Fields for Real-Time Articulated Shape Reconstruction

Jeff Tan · Gengshan Yang · Deva Ramanan

We present a method for reconstructing articulated 3D models from videos in real-time, without test-time optimization or manual 3D supervision at training time. Prior work often relies on pre-built deformable models (e.g. SMAL/SMPL), or slow per-scene optimization through differentiable rendering (e.g. dynamic NeRFs). Such methods fail to support arbitrary object categories, or are unsuitable for real-time applications. To address the challenge of collecting large-scale 3D training data for arbitrary deformable object categories, our key insight is to use off-the-shelf video-based dynamic NeRFs as 3D supervision to train a fast feed-forward network, turning 3D shape and motion prediction into a supervised distillation task. Our temporal-aware network uses articulated bones and blend skinning to represent arbitrary deformations, and is self-supervised on video datasets without requiring 3D shapes or viewpoints as input. Through distillation, our network learns to 3D-reconstruct unseen articulated objects at interactive frame rates. Our method yields higher-fidelity 3D reconstructions than prior real-time methods for animals, with the ability to render realistic images at novel viewpoints and poses.

GANmouflage: 3D Object Nondetection With Texture Fields

Rui Guo · Jasmine Collins · Oscar de Lima · Andrew Owens

We propose a method that learns to camouflage 3D objects within scenes. Given an object’s shape and a distribution of viewpoints from which it will be seen, we estimate a texture that will make it difficult to detect. Successfully solving this task requires a model that can accurately reproduce textures from the scene, while simultaneously dealing with the highly conflicting constraints imposed by each viewpoint. We address these challenges with a model based on texture fields and adversarial learning. Our model learns to camouflage a variety of object shapes from randomly sampled locations and viewpoints within the input scene, and is the first to address the problem of hiding complex object shapes. Using a human visual search study, we find that our estimated textures conceal objects significantly better than previous methods.

3D Human Pose Estimation via Intuitive Physics

Shashank Tripathi · Lea Müller · Chun-Hao P. Huang · Omid Taheri · Michael J. Black · Dimitrios Tzionas

Estimating 3D humans from images often produces implausible bodies that lean, float, or penetrate the floor. Such methods ignore the fact that bodies are typically supported by the scene. A physics engine can be used to enforce physical plausibility, but these are not differentiable, rely on unrealistic proxy bodies, and are difficult to integrate into existing optimization and learning frameworks. In contrast, we exploit novel intuitive-physics (IP) terms that can be inferred from a 3D SMPL body interacting with the scene. Inspired by biomechanics, we infer the pressure heatmap on the body, the Center of Pressure (CoP) from the heatmap, and the SMPL body’s Center of Mass (CoM). With these, we develop IPMAN, to estimate a 3D body from a color image in a “stable” configuration by encouraging plausible floor contact and overlapping CoP and CoM. Our IP terms are intuitive, easy to implement, fast to compute, differentiable, and can be integrated into existing optimization and regression methods. We evaluate IPMAN on standard datasets and MoYo, a new dataset with synchronized multi-view images, ground-truth 3D bodies with complex poses, body-floor contact, CoM and pressure. IPMAN produces more plausible results than the state of the art, improving accuracy for static poses, while not hurting dynamic ones. Code and data are available for research at

Object Pop-Up: Can We Infer 3D Objects and Their Poses From Human Interactions Alone?

Ilya A. Petrov · Riccardo Marin · Julian Chibane · Gerard Pons-Moll

The intimate entanglement between objects affordances and human poses is of large interest, among others, for behavioural sciences, cognitive psychology, and Computer Vision communities. In recent years, the latter has developed several object-centric approaches: starting from items, learning pipelines synthesizing human poses and dynamics in a realistic way, satisfying both geometrical and functional expectations. However, the inverse perspective is significantly less explored: Can we infer 3D objects and their poses from human interactions alone? Our investigation follows this direction, showing that a generic 3D human point cloud is enough to pop up an unobserved object, even when the user is just imitating a functionality (e.g., looking through a binocular) without involving a tangible counterpart. We validate our method qualitatively and quantitatively, with synthetic data and sequences acquired for the task, showing applicability for XR/VR.

UniDexGrasp: Universal Robotic Dexterous Grasping via Learning Diverse Proposal Generation and Goal-Conditioned Policy

Yinzhen Xu · Weikang Wan · Jialiang Zhang · Haoran Liu · Zikang Shan · Hao Shen · Ruicheng Wang · Haoran Geng · Yijia Weng · Jiayi Chen · Tengyu Liu · Li Yi · He Wang

In this work, we tackle the problem of learning universal robotic dexterous grasping from a point cloud observation under a table-top setting. The goal is to grasp and lift up objects in high-quality and diverse ways and generalize across hundreds of categories and even the unseen. Inspired by successful pipelines used in parallel gripper grasping, we split the task into two stages: 1) grasp proposal (pose) generation and 2) goal-conditioned grasp execution. For the first stage, we propose a novel probabilistic model of grasp pose conditioned on the point cloud observation that factorizes rotation from translation and articulation. Trained on our synthesized large-scale dexterous grasp dataset, this model enables us to sample diverse and high-quality dexterous grasp poses for the object point cloud. For the second stage, we propose to replace the motion planning used in parallel gripper grasping with a goal-conditioned grasp policy, due to the complexity involved in dexterous grasping execution. Note that it is very challenging to learn this highly generalizable grasp policy that only takes realistic inputs without oracle states. We thus propose several important innovations, including state canonicalization, object curriculum, and teacher-student distillation. Integrating the two stages, our final pipeline becomes the first to achieve universal generalization for dexterous grasping, demonstrating an average success rate of more than 60% on thousands of object instances, which significantly outperforms all baselines, meanwhile showing only a minimal generalization gap.

Constrained Evolutionary Diffusion Filter for Monocular Endoscope Tracking

Xiongbiao Luo

Stochastic filtering is widely used to deal with nonlinear optimization problems such as 3-D and visual tracking in various computer vision and augmented reality applications. Many current methods suffer from an imbalance between exploration and exploitation due to their particle degeneracy and impoverishment, resulting in local optimums. To address this imbalance, this work proposes a new constrained evolutionary diffusion filter for nonlinear optimization. Specifically, this filter develops spatial state constraints and adaptive history-recall differential evolution embedded evolutionary stochastic diffusion instead of sequential resampling to resolve the degeneracy and impoverishment problem. With application to monocular endoscope 3-D tracking, the experimental results show that the proposed filtering significantly improves the balance between exploration and exploitation and certainly works better than recent 3-D tracking methods. Particularly, the surgical tracking error was reduced from 4.03 mm to 2.59 mm.

Visibility Aware Human-Object Interaction Tracking From Single RGB Camera

Xianghui Xie · Bharat Lal Bhatnagar · Gerard Pons-Moll

Capturing the interactions between humans and their environment in 3D is important for many applications in robotics, graphics, and vision. Recent works to reconstruct the 3D human and object from a single RGB image do not have consistent relative translation across frames because they assume a fixed depth. Moreover, their performance drops significantly when the object is occluded. In this work, we propose a novel method to track the 3D human, object, contacts, and relative translation across frames from a single RGB camera, while being robust to heavy occlusions. Our method is built on two key insights. First, we condition our neural field reconstructions for human and object on per-frame SMPL model estimates obtained by pre-fitting SMPL to a video sequence. This improves neural reconstruction accuracy and produces coherent relative translation across frames. Second, human and object motion from visible frames provides valuable information to infer the occluded object. We propose a novel transformer-based neural network that explicitly uses object visibility and human motion to leverage neighboring frames to make predictions for the occluded frames. Building on these insights, our method is able to track both human and object robustly even under occlusions. Experiments on two datasets show that our method significantly improves over the state-of-the-art methods. Our code and pretrained models are available at:

Transformer-Based Unified Recognition of Two Hands Manipulating Objects

Hoseong Cho · Chanwoo Kim · Jihyeon Kim · Seongyeong Lee · Elkhan Ismayilzada · Seungryul Baek

Understanding the hand-object interactions from an egocentric video has received a great attention recently. So far, most approaches are based on the convolutional neural network (CNN) features combined with the temporal encoding via the long short-term memory (LSTM) or graph convolution network (GCN) to provide the unified understanding of two hands, an object and their interactions. In this paper, we propose the Transformer-based unified framework that provides better understanding of two hands manipulating objects. In our framework, we insert the whole image depicting two hands, an object and their interactions as input and jointly estimate 3 information from each frame: poses of two hands, pose of an object and object types. Afterwards, the action class defined by the hand-object interactions is predicted from the entire video based on the estimated information combined with the contact map that encodes the interaction between two hands and an object. Experiments are conducted on H2O and FPHA benchmark datasets and we demonstrated the superiority of our method achieving the state-of-the-art accuracy. Ablative studies further demonstrate the effectiveness of each proposed module.

HuManiFlow: Ancestor-Conditioned Normalising Flows on SO(3) Manifolds for Human Pose and Shape Distribution Estimation

Akash Sengupta · Ignas Budvytis · Roberto Cipolla

Monocular 3D human pose and shape estimation is an ill-posed problem since multiple 3D solutions can explain a 2D image of a subject. Recent approaches predict a probability distribution over plausible 3D pose and shape parameters conditioned on the image. We show that these approaches exhibit a trade-off between three key properties: (i) accuracy - the likelihood of the ground-truth 3D solution under the predicted distribution, (ii) sample-input consistency - the extent to which 3D samples from the predicted distribution match the visible 2D image evidence, and (iii) sample diversity - the range of plausible 3D solutions modelled by the predicted distribution. Our method, HuManiFlow, predicts simultaneously accurate, consistent and diverse distributions. We use the human kinematic tree to factorise full body pose into ancestor-conditioned per-body-part pose distributions in an autoregressive manner. Per-body-part distributions are implemented using normalising flows that respect the manifold structure of SO(3), the Lie group of per-body-part poses. We show that ill-posed, but ubiquitous, 3D point estimate losses reduce sample diversity, and employ only probabilistic training losses. HuManiFlow outperforms state-of-the-art probabilistic approaches on the 3DPW and SSP-3D datasets.

3D Human Pose Estimation With Spatio-Temporal Criss-Cross Attention

Zhenhua Tang · Zhaofan Qiu · Yanbin Hao · Richang Hong · Ting Yao

Recent transformer-based solutions have shown great success in 3D human pose estimation. Nevertheless, to calculate the joint-to-joint affinity matrix, the computational cost has a quadratic growth with the increasing number of joints. Such drawback becomes even worse especially for pose estimation in a video sequence, which necessitates spatio-temporal correlation spanning over the entire video. In this paper, we facilitate the issue by decomposing correlation learning into space and time, and present a novel Spatio-Temporal Criss-cross attention (STC) block. Technically, STC first slices its input feature into two partitions evenly along the channel dimension, followed by performing spatial and temporal attention respectively on each partition. STC then models the interactions between joints in an identical frame and joints in an identical trajectory simultaneously by concatenating the outputs from attention layers. On this basis, we devise STCFormer by stacking multiple STC blocks and further integrate a new Structure-enhanced Positional Embedding (SPE) into STCFormer to take the structure of human body into consideration. The embedding function consists of two components: spatio-temporal convolution around neighboring joints to capture local structure, and part-aware embedding to indicate which part each joint belongs to. Extensive experiments are conducted on Human3.6M and MPI-INF-3DHP benchmarks, and superior results are reported when comparing to the state-of-the-art approaches. More remarkably, STCFormer achieves to-date the best published performance: 40.5mm P1 error on the challenging Human3.6M dataset.

GFPose: Learning 3D Human Pose Prior With Gradient Fields

Hai Ci · Mingdong Wu · Wentao Zhu · Xiaoxuan Ma · Hao Dong · Fangwei Zhong · Yizhou Wang

Learning 3D human pose prior is essential to human-centered AI. Here, we present GFPose, a versatile framework to model plausible 3D human poses for various applications. At the core of GFPose is a time-dependent score network, which estimates the gradient on each body joint and progressively denoises the perturbed 3D human pose to match a given task specification. During the denoising process, GFPose implicitly incorporates pose priors in gradients and unifies various discriminative and generative tasks in an elegant framework. Despite the simplicity, GFPose demonstrates great potential in several downstream tasks. Our experiments empirically show that 1) as a multi-hypothesis pose estimator, GFPose outperforms existing SOTAs by 20% on Human3.6M dataset. 2) as a single-hypothesis pose estimator, GFPose achieves comparable results to deterministic SOTAs, even with a vanilla backbone. 3) GFPose is able to produce diverse and realistic samples in pose denoising, completion and generation tasks.

JRDB-Pose: A Large-Scale Dataset for Multi-Person Pose Estimation and Tracking

Edward Vendrow · Tho Le · Jianfei Cai · Hamid Rezatofighi

Autonomous robotic systems operating in human environments must understand their surroundings to make accurate and safe decisions. In crowded human scenes with close-up human-robot interaction and robot navigation, a deep understanding of surrounding people requires reasoning about human motion and body dynamics over time with human body pose estimation and tracking. However, existing datasets captured from robot platforms either do not provide pose annotations or do not reflect the scene distribution of social robots. In this paper, we introduce JRDB-Pose, a large-scale dataset and benchmark for multi-person pose estimation and tracking. JRDB-Pose extends the existing JRDB which includes videos captured from a social navigation robot in a university campus environment, containing challenging scenes with crowded indoor and outdoor locations and a diverse range of scales and occlusion types. JRDB-Pose provides human pose annotations with per-keypoint occlusion labels and track IDs consistent across the scene and with existing annotations in JRDB. We conduct a thorough experimental study of state-of-the-art multi-person pose estimation and tracking methods on JRDB-Pose, showing that our dataset imposes new challenges for the existing methods. JRDB-Pose is available at

Analyzing and Diagnosing Pose Estimation With Attributions

Qiyuan He · Linlin Yang · Kerui Gu · Qiuxia Lin · Angela Yao

We present Pose Integrated Gradient (PoseIG), the first interpretability technique designed for pose estimation. We extend the concept of integrated gradients for pose estimation to generate pixel-level attribution maps. To enable comparison across different pose frameworks, we unify different pose outputs into a common output space, along with a likelihood approximation function for gradient back-propagation. To complement the qualitative insight from the attribution maps, we propose three indices for quantitative analysis. With these tools, we systematically compare different pose estimation frameworks to understand the impacts of network design, backbone and auxiliary tasks. Our analysis reveals an interesting shortcut of the knuckles (MCP joints) for hand pose estimation and an under-explored inversion error for keypoints in body pose estimation. Project page:

Shape-Constraint Recurrent Flow for 6D Object Pose Estimation

Yang Hai · Rui Song · Jiaojiao Li · Yinlin Hu

Most recent 6D object pose estimation methods rely on 2D optical flow networks to refine their results. However, these optical flow methods typically do not consider any 3D shape information of the targets during matching, making them suffer in 6D object pose estimation. In this work, we propose a shape-constraint recurrent flow network for 6D object pose estimation, which embeds the 3D shape information of the targets into the matching procedure. We first introduce a flow-to-pose component to learn an intermediate pose from the current flow estimation, then impose a shape constraint from the current pose on the lookup space of the 4D correlation volume for flow estimation, which reduces the matching space significantly and is much easier to learn. Finally, we optimize the flow and pose simultaneously in a recurrent manner until convergence. We evaluate our method on three challenging 6D object pose datasets and show that it outperforms the state of the art in both accuracy and efficiency.

TexPose: Neural Texture Learning for Self-Supervised 6D Object Pose Estimation

Hanzhi Chen · Fabian Manhardt · Nassir Navab · Benjamin Busam

In this paper, we introduce neural texture learning for 6D object pose estimation from synthetic data and a few unlabelled real images. Our major contribution is a novel learning scheme which removes the drawbacks of previous works, namely the strong dependency on co-modalities or additional refinement. These have been previously necessary to provide training signals for convergence. We formulate such a scheme as two sub-optimisation problems on texture learning and pose learning. We separately learn to predict realistic texture of objects from real image collections and learn pose estimation from pixel-perfect synthetic data. Combining these two capabilities allows then to synthesise photorealistic novel views to supervise the pose estimator with accurate geometry. To alleviate pose noise and segmentation imperfection present during the texture learning phase, we propose a surfel-based adversarial training loss together with texture regularisation from synthetic data. We demonstrate that the proposed approach significantly outperforms the recent state-of-the-art methods without ground-truth pose annotations and demonstrates substantial generalisation improvements towards unseen scenes. Remarkably, our scheme improves the adopted pose estimators substantially even when initialised with much inferior performance.

Hi-LASSIE: High-Fidelity Articulated Shape and Skeleton Discovery From Sparse Image Ensemble

Chun-Han Yao · Wei-Chih Hung · Yuanzhen Li · Michael Rubinstein · Ming-Hsuan Yang · Varun Jampani

Automatically estimating 3D skeleton, shape, camera viewpoints, and part articulation from sparse in-the-wild image ensembles is a severely under-constrained and challenging problem. Most prior methods rely on large-scale image datasets, dense temporal correspondence, or human annotations like camera pose, 2D keypoints, and shape templates. We propose Hi-LASSIE, which performs 3D articulated reconstruction from only 20-30 online images in the wild without any user-defined shape or skeleton templates. We follow the recent work of LASSIE that tackles a similar problem setting and make two significant advances. First, instead of relying on a manually annotated 3D skeleton, we automatically estimate a class-specific skeleton from the selected reference image. Second, we improve the shape reconstructions with novel instance-specific optimization strategies that allow reconstructions to faithful fit on each instance while preserving the class-specific priors learned across all images. Experiments on in-the-wild image ensembles show that Hi-LASSIE obtains higher fidelity state-of-the-art 3D reconstructions despite requiring minimum user input. Project page:

Revisiting Rolling Shutter Bundle Adjustment: Toward Accurate and Fast Solution

Bangyan Liao · Delin Qu · Yifei Xue · Huiqing Zhang · Yizhen Lao

We propose a robust and fast bundle adjustment solution that estimates the 6-DoF pose of the camera and the geometry of the environment based on measurements from a rolling shutter (RS) camera. This tackles the challenges in the existing works, namely relying on additional sensors, high frame rate video as input, restrictive assumptions on camera motion, readout direction, and poor efficiency. To this end, we first investigate the influence of normalization to the image point on RSBA performance and show its better approximation in modelling the real 6-DoF camera motion. Then we present a novel analytical model for the visual residual covariance, which can be used to standardize the reprojection error during the optimization, consequently improving the overall accuracy. More importantly, the combination of normalization and covariance standardization weighting in RSBA (NW-RSBA) can avoid common planar degeneracy without needing to constrain the filming manner. Besides, we propose an acceleration strategy for NW-RSBA based on the sparsity of its Jacobian matrix and Schur complement. The extensive synthetic and real data experiments verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed solution over the state-of-the-art works. We also demonstrate the proposed method can be easily implemented and plug-in famous GSSfM and GSSLAM systems as completed RSSfM and RSSLAM solutions.

Revisiting the P3P Problem

Yaqing Ding · Jian Yang · Viktor Larsson · Carl Olsson · Kalle Åström

One of the classical multi-view geometry problems is the so called P3P problem, where the absolute pose of a calibrated camera is determined from three 2D-to-3D correspondences. Since these solvers form a critical component of many vision systems (e.g.~in localization and Structure-from-Motion), there have been significant effort in developing faster and more stable algorithms. While the current state-of-the-art solvers are both extremely fast and stable, there still exist configurations where they break down. In this paper we algebraically formulate the problem as finding the intersection of two conics. With this formulation we are able to analytically characterize the real roots of the polynomial system and employ a tailored solution strategy for each problem instance. The result is a fast and completely stable solver, that is able to correctly solve cases where competing methods fail. Our experimental evaluation shows that we outperform the current state-of-the-art methods both in terms of speed and success rate.

Common Pets in 3D: Dynamic New-View Synthesis of Real-Life Deformable Categories

Samarth Sinha · Roman Shapovalov · Jeremy Reizenstein · Ignacio Rocco · Natalia Neverova · Andrea Vedaldi · David Novotny

Obtaining photorealistic reconstructions of objects from sparse views is inherently ambiguous and can only be achieved by learning suitable reconstruction priors. Earlier works on sparse rigid object reconstruction successfully learned such priors from large datasets such as CO3D. In this paper, we extend this approach to dynamic objects. We use cats and dogs as a representative example and introduce Common Pets in 3D (CoP3D), a collection of crowd-sourced videos showing around 4,200 distinct pets. CoP3D is one of the first large-scale datasets for benchmarking non-rigid 3D reconstruction “in the wild”. We also propose Tracker-NeRF, a method for learning 4D reconstruction from our dataset. At test time, given a small number of video frames of an unseen sequence, Tracker-NeRF predicts the trajectories and dynamics of the 3D points and generates new views, interpolating viewpoint and time. Results on CoP3D reveal significantly better non-rigid new-view synthesis performance than existing baselines. The data is available on the project webpage:

MobileBrick: Building LEGO for 3D Reconstruction on Mobile Devices

Kejie Li · Jia-Wang Bian · Robert Castle · Philip H.S. Torr · Victor Adrian Prisacariu

High-quality 3D ground-truth shapes are critical for 3D object reconstruction evaluation. However, it is difficult to create a replica of an object in reality, and even 3D reconstructions generated by 3D scanners have artefacts that cause biases in evaluation. To address this issue, we introduce a novel multi-view RGBD dataset captured using a mobile device, which includes highly precise 3D ground-truth annotations for 153 object models featuring a diverse set of 3D structures. We obtain precise 3D ground-truth shape without relying on high-end 3D scanners by utilising LEGO models with known geometry as the 3D structures for image capture. The distinct data modality offered by high- resolution RGB images and low-resolution depth maps captured on a mobile device, when combined with precise 3D geometry annotations, presents a unique opportunity for future research on high-fidelity 3D reconstruction. Furthermore, we evaluate a range of 3D reconstruction algorithms on the proposed dataset.

EFEM: Equivariant Neural Field Expectation Maximization for 3D Object Segmentation Without Scene Supervision

Jiahui Lei · Congyue Deng · Karl Schmeckpeper · Leonidas Guibas · Kostas Daniilidis

We introduce Equivariant Neural Field Expectation Maximization (EFEM), a simple, effective, and robust geometric algorithm that can segment objects in 3D scenes without annotations or training on scenes. We achieve such unsupervised segmentation by exploiting single object shape priors. We make two novel steps in that direction. First, we introduce equivariant shape representations to this problem to eliminate the complexity induced by the variation in object configuration. Second, we propose a novel EM algorithm that can iteratively refine segmentation masks using the equivariant shape prior. We collect a novel real dataset Chairs and Mugs that contains various object configurations and novel scenes in order to verify the effectiveness and robustness of our method. Experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves consistent and robust performance across different scenes where the (weakly) supervised methods may fail. Code and data available at

GINA-3D: Learning To Generate Implicit Neural Assets in the Wild

Bokui Shen · Xinchen Yan · Charles R. Qi · Mahyar Najibi · Boyang Deng · Leonidas Guibas · Yin Zhou · Dragomir Anguelov

Modeling the 3D world from sensor data for simulation is a scalable way of developing testing and validation environments for robotic learning problems such as autonomous driving. However, manually creating or re-creating real-world-like environments is difficult, expensive, and not scalable. Recent generative model techniques have shown promising progress to address such challenges by learning 3D assets using only plentiful 2D images -- but still suffer limitations as they leverage either human-curated image datasets or renderings from manually-created synthetic 3D environments. In this paper, we introduce GINA-3D, a generative model that uses real-world driving data from camera and LiDAR sensors to create photo-realistic 3D implicit neural assets of diverse vehicles and pedestrians. Compared to the existing image datasets, the real-world driving setting poses new challenges due to occlusions, lighting-variations and long-tail distributions. GINA-3D tackles these challenges by decoupling representation learning and generative modeling into two stages with a learned tri-plane latent structure, inspired by recent advances in generative modeling of images. To evaluate our approach, we construct a large-scale object-centric dataset containing over 520K images of vehicles and pedestrians from the Waymo Open Dataset, and a new set of 80K images of long-tail instances such as construction equipment, garbage trucks, and cable cars. We compare our model with existing approaches and demonstrate that it achieves state-of-the-art performance in quality and diversity for both generated images and geometries.

Habitat-Matterport 3D Semantics Dataset

Karmesh Yadav · Ram Ramrakhya · Santhosh Kumar Ramakrishnan · Theo Gervet · John Turner · Aaron Gokaslan · Noah Maestre · Angel Xuan Chang · Dhruv Batra · Manolis Savva · Alexander William Clegg · Devendra Singh Chaplot

We present the Habitat-Matterport 3D Semantics (HM3DSEM) dataset. HM3DSEM is the largest dataset of 3D real-world spaces with densely annotated semantics that is currently available to the academic community. It consists of 142,646 object instance annotations across 216 3D spaces and 3,100 rooms within those spaces. The scale, quality, and diversity of object annotations far exceed those of prior datasets. A key difference setting apart HM3DSEM from other datasets is the use of texture information to annotate pixel-accurate object boundaries. We demonstrate the effectiveness of HM3DSEM dataset for the Object Goal Navigation task using different methods. Policies trained using HM3DSEM perform outperform those trained on prior datasets. Introduction of HM3DSEM in the Habitat ObjectNav Challenge lead to an increase in participation from 400 submissions in 2021 to 1022 submissions in 2022. Project page:

BUOL: A Bottom-Up Framework With Occupancy-Aware Lifting for Panoptic 3D Scene Reconstruction From a Single Image

Tao Chu · Pan Zhang · Qiong Liu · Jiaqi Wang

Understanding and modeling the 3D scene from a single image is a practical problem. A recent advance proposes a panoptic 3D scene reconstruction task that performs both 3D reconstruction and 3D panoptic segmentation from a single image. Although having made substantial progress, recent works only focus on top-down approaches that fill 2D instances into 3D voxels according to estimated depth, which hinders their performance by two ambiguities. (1) instance-channel ambiguity: The variable ids of instances in each scene lead to ambiguity during filling voxel channels with 2D information, confusing the following 3D refinement. (2) voxel-reconstruction ambiguity: 2D-to-3D lifting with estimated single view depth only propagates 2D information onto the surface of 3D regions, leading to ambiguity during the reconstruction of regions behind the frontal view surface. In this paper, we propose BUOL, a Bottom-Up framework with Occupancy-aware Lifting to address the two issues for panoptic 3D scene reconstruction from a single image. For instance-channel ambiguity, a bottom-up framework lifts 2D information to 3D voxels based on deterministic semantic assignments rather than arbitrary instance id assignments. The 3D voxels are then refined and grouped into 3D instances according to the predicted 2D instance centers. For voxel-reconstruction ambiguity, the estimated multi-plane occupancy is leveraged together with depth to fill the whole regions of things and stuff. Our method shows a tremendous performance advantage over state-of-the-art methods on synthetic dataset 3D-Front and real-world dataset Matterport3D, respectively. Code and models will be released.

Panoptic Compositional Feature Field for Editable Scene Rendering With Network-Inferred Labels via Metric Learning

Xinhua Cheng · Yanmin Wu · Mengxi Jia · Qian Wang · Jian Zhang

Despite neural implicit representations demonstrating impressive high-quality view synthesis capacity, decomposing such representations into objects for instance-level editing is still challenging. Recent works learn object-compositional representations supervised by ground truth instance annotations and produce promising scene editing results. However, ground truth annotations are manually labeled and expensive in practice, which limits their usage in real-world scenes. In this work, we attempt to learn an object-compositional neural implicit representation for editable scene rendering by leveraging labels inferred from the off-the-shelf 2D panoptic segmentation networks instead of the ground truth annotations. We propose a novel framework named Panoptic Compositional Feature Field (PCFF), which introduces an instance quadruplet metric learning to build a discriminating panoptic feature space for reliable scene editing. In addition, we propose semantic-related strategies to further exploit the correlations between semantic and appearance attributes for achieving better rendering results. Experiments on multiple scene datasets including ScanNet, Replica, and ToyDesk demonstrate that our proposed method achieves superior performance for novel view synthesis and produces convincing real-world scene editing results. The code will be available.

A Light Touch Approach to Teaching Transformers Multi-View Geometry

Yash Bhalgat · João F. Henriques · Andrew Zisserman

Transformers are powerful visual learners, in large part due to their conspicuous lack of manually-specified priors. This flexibility can be problematic in tasks that involve multiple-view geometry, due to the near-infinite possible variations in 3D shapes and viewpoints (requiring flexibility), and the precise nature of projective geometry (obeying rigid laws). To resolve this conundrum, we propose a “light touch” approach, guiding visual Transformers to learn multiple-view geometry but allowing them to break free when needed. We achieve this by using epipolar lines to guide the Transformer’s cross-attention maps, penalizing attention values outside the epipolar lines and encouraging higher attention along these lines since they contain geometrically plausible matches. Unlike previous methods, our proposal does not require any camera pose information at test-time. We focus on pose-invariant object instance retrieval, where standard Transformer networks struggle, due to the large differences in viewpoint between query and retrieved images. Experimentally, our method outperforms state-of-the-art approaches at object retrieval, without needing pose information at test-time.

Learning To Render Novel Views From Wide-Baseline Stereo Pairs

Yilun Du · Cameron Smith · Ayush Tewari · Vincent Sitzmann

We introduce a method for novel view synthesis given only a single wide-baseline stereo image pair. In this challenging regime, 3D scene points are regularly observed only once, requiring prior-based reconstruction of scene geometry and appearance. We find that existing approaches to novel view synthesis from sparse observations fail due to recovering incorrect 3D geometry and the high cost of differentiable rendering that precludes their scaling to large-scale training. We take a step towards resolving these shortcomings by formulating a multi-view transformer encoder, proposing an efficient, image-space epipolar line sampling scheme to assemble image features for a target ray, and a lightweight cross-attention-based renderer. Our contributions enable training of our method on a large-scale real-world dataset of indoor and outdoor scenes. In several ablation studies, we demonstrate that our contributions enable learning of powerful multi-view geometry priors while reducing both rendering time and memory footprint. We conduct extensive comparisons on held-out test scenes across two real-world datasets, significantly outperforming prior work on novel view synthesis from sparse image observations and achieving multi-view-consistent novel view synthesis.

Spring: A High-Resolution High-Detail Dataset and Benchmark for Scene Flow, Optical Flow and Stereo

Lukas Mehl · Jenny Schmalfuss · Azin Jahedi · Yaroslava Nalivayko · Andrés Bruhn

While recent methods for motion and stereo estimation recover an unprecedented amount of details, such highly detailed structures are neither adequately reflected in the data of existing benchmarks nor their evaluation methodology. Hence, we introduce Spring -- a large, high-resolution, high-detail, computer-generated benchmark for scene flow, optical flow, and stereo. Based on rendered scenes from the open-source Blender movie “Spring”, it provides photo-realistic HD datasets with state-of-the-art visual effects and ground truth training data. Furthermore, we provide a website to upload, analyze and compare results. Using a novel evaluation methodology based on a super-resolved UHD ground truth, our Spring benchmark can assess the quality of fine structures and provides further detailed performance statistics on different image regions. Regarding the number of ground truth frames, Spring is 60× larger than the only scene flow benchmark, KITTI 2015, and 15× larger than the well-established MPI Sintel optical flow benchmark. Initial results for recent methods on our benchmark show that estimating fine details is indeed challenging, as their accuracy leaves significant room for improvement. The Spring benchmark and the corresponding datasets are available at

EventNeRF: Neural Radiance Fields From a Single Colour Event Camera

Viktor Rudnev · Mohamed Elgharib · Christian Theobalt · Vladislav Golyanik

Asynchronously operating event cameras find many applications due to their high dynamic range, vanishingly low motion blur, low latency and low data bandwidth. The field saw remarkable progress during the last few years, and existing event-based 3D reconstruction approaches recover sparse point clouds of the scene. However, such sparsity is a limiting factor in many cases, especially in computer vision and graphics, that has not been addressed satisfactorily so far. Accordingly, this paper proposes the first approach for 3D-consistent, dense and photorealistic novel view synthesis using just a single colour event stream as input. At its core is a neural radiance field trained entirely in a self-supervised manner from events while preserving the original resolution of the colour event channels. Next, our ray sampling strategy is tailored to events and allows for data-efficient training. At test, our method produces results in the RGB space at unprecedented quality. We evaluate our method qualitatively and numerically on several challenging synthetic and real scenes and show that it produces significantly denser and more visually appealing renderings than the existing methods. We also demonstrate robustness in challenging scenarios with fast motion and under low lighting conditions. We release the newly recorded dataset and our source code to facilitate the research field, see

LightedDepth: Video Depth Estimation in Light of Limited Inference View Angles

Shengjie Zhu · Xiaoming Liu

Video depth estimation infers the dense scene depth from immediate neighboring video frames. While recent works consider it a simplified structure-from-motion (SfM) problem, it still differs from the SfM in that significantly fewer view angels are available in inference. This setting, however, suits the mono-depth and optical flow estimation. This observation motivates us to decouple the video depth estimation into two components, a normalized pose estimation over a flowmap and a logged residual depth estimation over a mono-depth map. The two parts are unified with an efficient off-the-shelf scale alignment algorithm. Additionally, we stabilize the indoor two-view pose estimation by including additional projection constraints and ensuring sufficient camera translation. Though a two-view algorithm, we validate the benefit of the decoupling with the substantial performance improvement over multi-view iterative prior works on indoor and outdoor datasets. Codes and models are available at

Generating Aligned Pseudo-Supervision From Non-Aligned Data for Image Restoration in Under-Display Camera

Ruicheng Feng · Chongyi Li · Huaijin Chen · Shuai Li · Jinwei Gu · Chen Change Loy

Due to the difficulty in collecting large-scale and perfectly aligned paired training data for Under-Display Camera (UDC) image restoration, previous methods resort to monitor-based image systems or simulation-based methods, sacrificing the realness of the data and introducing domain gaps. In this work, we revisit the classic stereo setup for training data collection -- capturing two images of the same scene with one UDC and one standard camera. The key idea is to “copy” details from a high-quality reference image and “paste” them on the UDC image. While being able to generate real training pairs, this setting is susceptible to spatial misalignment due to perspective and depth of field changes. The problem is further compounded by the large domain discrepancy between the UDC and normal images, which is unique to UDC restoration. In this paper, we mitigate the non-trivial domain discrepancy and spatial misalignment through a novel Transformer-based framework that generates well-aligned yet high-quality target data for the corresponding UDC input. This is made possible through two carefully designed components, namely, the Domain Alignment Module (DAM) and Geometric Alignment Module (GAM), which encourage robust and accurate discovery of correspondence between the UDC and normal views. Extensive experiments show that high-quality and well-aligned pseudo UDC training pairs are beneficial for training a robust restoration network. Code and the dataset are available at

Spatio-Focal Bidirectional Disparity Estimation From a Dual-Pixel Image

Donggun Kim · Hyeonjoong Jang · Inchul Kim · Min H. Kim

Dual-pixel photography is monocular RGB-D photography with an ultra-high resolution, enabling many applications in computational photography. However, there are still several challenges to fully utilizing dual-pixel photography. Unlike the conventional stereo pair, the dual pixel exhibits a bidirectional disparity that includes positive and negative values, depending on the focus plane depth in an image. Furthermore, capturing a wide range of dual-pixel disparity requires a shallow depth of field, resulting in a severely blurred image, degrading depth estimation performance. Recently, several data-driven approaches have been proposed to mitigate these two challenges. However, due to the lack of the ground-truth dataset of the dual-pixel disparity, existing data-driven methods estimate either inverse depth or blurriness map. In this work, we propose a self-supervised learning method that learns bidirectional disparity by utilizing the nature of anisotropic blur kernels in dual-pixel photography. We observe that the dual-pixel left/right images have reflective-symmetric anisotropic kernels, so their sum is equivalent to that of a conventional image. We take a self-supervised training approach with the novel kernel-split symmetry loss accounting for the phenomenon. Our method does not rely on a training dataset of dual-pixel disparity that does not exist yet. Our method can estimate a complete disparity map with respect to the focus-plane depth from a dual-pixel image, outperforming the baseline dual-pixel methods.

Trap Attention: Monocular Depth Estimation With Manual Traps

Chao Ning · Hongping Gan

Predicting a high quality depth map from a single image is a challenging task, because it exists infinite possibility to project a 2D scene to the corresponding 3D scene. Recently, some studies introduced multi-head attention (MHA) modules to perform long-range interaction, which have shown significant progress in regressing the depth maps.The main functions of MHA can be loosely summarized to capture long-distance information and report the attention map by the relationship between pixels. However, due to the quadratic complexity of MHA, these methods can not leverage MHA to compute depth features in high resolution with an appropriate computational complexity. In this paper, we exploit a depth-wise convolution to obtain long-range information, and propose a novel trap attention, which sets some traps on the extended space for each pixel, and forms the attention mechanism by the feature retention ratio of convolution window, resulting in that the quadratic computational complexity can be converted to linear form. Then we build an encoder-decoder trap depth estimation network, which introduces a vision transformer as the encoder, and uses the trap attention to estimate the depth from single image in the decoder. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our proposed network can outperform the state-of-the-art methods in monocular depth estimation on datasets NYU Depth-v2 and KITTI, with significantly reduced number of parameters. Code is available at:

Accelerated Coordinate Encoding: Learning to Relocalize in Minutes Using RGB and Poses

Eric Brachmann · Tommaso Cavallari · Victor Adrian Prisacariu

Learning-based visual relocalizers exhibit leading pose accuracy, but require hours or days of training. Since training needs to happen on each new scene again, long training times make learning-based relocalization impractical for most applications, despite its promise of high accuracy. In this paper we show how such a system can actually achieve the same accuracy in less than 5 minutes. We start from the obvious: a relocalization network can be split in a scene-agnostic feature backbone, and a scene-specific prediction head. Less obvious: using an MLP prediction head allows us to optimize across thousands of view points simultaneously in each single training iteration. This leads to stable and extremely fast convergence. Furthermore, we substitute effective but slow end-to-end training using a robust pose solver with a curriculum over a reprojection loss. Our approach does not require privileged knowledge, such a depth maps or a 3D model, for speedy training. Overall, our approach is up to 300x faster in mapping than state-of-the-art scene coordinate regression, while keeping accuracy on par. Code is available:

Energy-Efficient Adaptive 3D Sensing

Brevin Tilmon · Zhanghao Sun · Sanjeev J. Koppal · Yicheng Wu · Georgios Evangelidis · Ramzi Zahreddine · Gurunandan Krishnan · Sizhuo Ma · Jian Wang

Active depth sensing achieves robust depth estimation but is usually limited by the sensing range. Naively increasing the optical power can improve sensing range but induces eye-safety concerns for many applications, including autonomous robots and augmented reality. In this paper, we propose an adaptive active depth sensor that jointly optimizes range, power consumption, and eye-safety. The main observation is that we need not project light patterns to the entire scene but only to small regions of interest where depth is necessary for the application and passive stereo depth estimation fails. We theoretically compare this adaptive sensing scheme with other sensing strategies, such as full-frame projection, line scanning, and point scanning. We show that, to achieve the same maximum sensing distance, the proposed method consumes the least power while having the shortest (best) eye-safety distance. We implement this adaptive sensing scheme with two hardware prototypes, one with a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) and the other with a micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) mirror and diffractive optical elements (DOE). Experimental results validate the advantage of our method and demonstrate its capability of acquiring higher quality geometry adaptively.

Incremental 3D Semantic Scene Graph Prediction From RGB Sequences

Shun-Cheng Wu · Keisuke Tateno · Nassir Navab · Federico Tombari

3D semantic scene graphs are a powerful holistic representation as they describe the individual objects and depict the relation between them. They are compact high-level graphs that enable many tasks requiring scene reasoning. In real-world settings, existing 3D estimation methods produce robust predictions that mostly rely on dense inputs. In this work, we propose a real-time framework that incrementally builds a consistent 3D semantic scene graph of a scene given an RGB image sequence. Our method consists of a novel incremental entity estimation pipeline and a scene graph prediction network. The proposed pipeline simultaneously reconstructs a sparse point map and fuses entity estimation from the input images. The proposed network estimates 3D semantic scene graphs with iterative message passing using multi-view and geometric features extracted from the scene entities. Extensive experiments on the 3RScan dataset show the effectiveness of the proposed method in this challenging task, outperforming state-of-the-art approaches.

Consistent Direct Time-of-Flight Video Depth Super-Resolution

Zhanghao Sun · Wei Ye · Jinhui Xiong · Gyeongmin Choe · Jialiang Wang · Shuochen Su · Rakesh Ranjan

Direct time-of-flight (dToF) sensors are promising for next-generation on-device 3D sensing. However, limited by manufacturing capabilities in a compact module, the dToF data has low spatial resolution (e.g., ~20x30 for iPhone dToF), and it requires a super-resolution step before being passed to downstream tasks. In this paper, we solve this super-resolution problem by fusing the low-resolution dToF data with the corresponding high-resolution RGB guidance. Unlike the conventional RGB-guided depth enhancement approaches which perform the fusion in a per-frame manner, we propose the first multi-frame fusion scheme to mitigate the spatial ambiguity resulting from the low-resolution dToF imaging. In addition, dToF sensors provide unique depth histogram information for each local patch, and we incorporate this dToF-specific feature in our network design to further alleviate spatial ambiguity. To evaluate our models on complex dynamic indoor environments and to provide a large-scale dToF sensor dataset, we introduce DyDToF, the first synthetic RGB-dToF video dataset that features dynamic objects and a realistic dToF simulator following the physical imaging process. We believe the methods and dataset are beneficial to a broad community as dToF depth sensing is becoming mainstream on mobile devices. Our code and data are publicly available.

Learning To Zoom and Unzoom

Chittesh Thavamani · Mengtian Li · Francesco Ferroni · Deva Ramanan

Many perception systems in mobile computing, autonomous navigation, and AR/VR face strict compute constraints that are particularly challenging for high-resolution input images. Previous works propose nonuniform downsamplers that “learn to zoom” on salient image regions, reducing compute while retaining task-relevant image information. However, for tasks with spatial labels (such as 2D/3D object detection and semantic segmentation), such distortions may harm performance. In this work (LZU), we “learn to zoom” in on the input image, compute spatial features, and then “unzoom” to revert any deformations. To enable efficient and differentiable unzooming, we approximate the zooming warp with a piecewise bilinear mapping that is invertible. LZU can be applied to any task with 2D spatial input and any model with 2D spatial features, and we demonstrate this versatility by evaluating on a variety of tasks and datasets: object detection on Argoverse-HD, semantic segmentation on Cityscapes, and monocular 3D object detection on nuScenes. Interestingly, we observe boosts in performance even when high-resolution sensor data is unavailable, implying that LZU can be used to “learn to upsample” as well. Code and additional visuals are available at

FrustumFormer: Adaptive Instance-Aware Resampling for Multi-View 3D Detection

Yuqi Wang · Yuntao Chen · Zhaoxiang Zhang

The transformation of features from 2D perspective space to 3D space is essential to multi-view 3D object detection. Recent approaches mainly focus on the design of view transformation, either pixel-wisely lifting perspective view features into 3D space with estimated depth or grid-wisely constructing BEV features via 3D projection, treating all pixels or grids equally. However, choosing what to transform is also important but has rarely been discussed before. The pixels of a moving car are more informative than the pixels of the sky. To fully utilize the information contained in images, the view transformation should be able to adapt to different image regions according to their contents. In this paper, we propose a novel framework named FrustumFormer, which pays more attention to the features in instance regions via adaptive instance-aware resampling. Specifically, the model obtains instance frustums on the bird’s eye view by leveraging image view object proposals. An adaptive occupancy mask within the instance frustum is learned to refine the instance location. Moreover, the temporal frustum intersection could further reduce the localization uncertainty of objects. Comprehensive experiments on the nuScenes dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of FrustumFormer, and we achieve a new state-of-the-art performance on the benchmark. Codes and models will be made available at

3D Video Object Detection With Learnable Object-Centric Global Optimization

Jiawei He · Yuntao Chen · Naiyan Wang · Zhaoxiang Zhang

We explore long-term temporal visual correspondence-based optimization for 3D video object detection in this work. Visual correspondence refers to one-to-one mappings for pixels across multiple images. Correspondence-based optimization is the cornerstone for 3D scene reconstruction but is less studied in 3D video object detection, because moving objects violate multi-view geometry constraints and are treated as outliers during scene reconstruction. We address this issue by treating objects as first-class citizens during correspondence-based optimization. In this work, we propose BA-Det, an end-to-end optimizable object detector with object-centric temporal correspondence learning and featuremetric object bundle adjustment. Empirically, we verify the effectiveness and efficiency of BA-Det for multiple baseline 3D detectors under various setups. Our BA-Det achieves SOTA performance on the large-scale Waymo Open Dataset (WOD) with only marginal computation cost. Our code is available at

UniDistill: A Universal Cross-Modality Knowledge Distillation Framework for 3D Object Detection in Bird’s-Eye View

Shengchao Zhou · Weizhou Liu · Chen Hu · Shuchang Zhou · Chao Ma

In the field of 3D object detection for autonomous driving, the sensor portfolio including multi-modality and single-modality is diverse and complex. Since the multi-modal methods have system complexity while the accuracy of single-modal ones is relatively low, how to make a tradeoff between them is difficult. In this work, we propose a universal cross-modality knowledge distillation framework (UniDistill) to improve the performance of single-modality detectors. Specifically, during training, UniDistill projects the features of both the teacher and the student detector into Bird’s-Eye-View (BEV), which is a friendly representation for different modalities. Then, three distillation losses are calculated to sparsely align the foreground features, helping the student learn from the teacher without introducing additional cost during inference. Taking advantage of the similar detection paradigm of different detectors in BEV, UniDistill easily supports LiDAR-to-camera, camera-to-LiDAR, fusion-to-LiDAR and fusion-to-camera distillation paths. Furthermore, the three distillation losses can filter the effect of misaligned background information and balance between objects of different sizes, improving the distillation effectiveness. Extensive experiments on nuScenes demonstrate that UniDistill effectively improves the mAP and NDS of student detectors by 2.0%~3.2%.

ARKitTrack: A New Diverse Dataset for Tracking Using Mobile RGB-D Data

Haojie Zhao · Junsong Chen · Lijun Wang · Huchuan Lu

Compared with traditional RGB-only visual tracking, few datasets have been constructed for RGB-D tracking. In this paper, we propose ARKitTrack, a new RGB-D tracking dataset for both static and dynamic scenes captured by consumer-grade LiDAR scanners equipped on Apple’s iPhone and iPad. ARKitTrack contains 300 RGB-D sequences, 455 targets, and 229.7K video frames in total. Along with the bounding box annotations and frame-level attributes, we also annotate this dataset with 123.9K pixel-level target masks. Besides, the camera intrinsic and camera pose of each frame are provided for future developments. To demonstrate the potential usefulness of this dataset, we further present a unified baseline for both box-level and pixel-level tracking, which integrates RGB features with bird’s-eye-view representations to better explore cross-modality 3D geometry. In-depth empirical analysis has verified that the ARKitTrack dataset can significantly facilitate RGB-D tracking and that the proposed baseline method compares favorably against the state of the arts. The source code and dataset will be released.

Deep Dive Into Gradients: Better Optimization for 3D Object Detection With Gradient-Corrected IoU Supervision

Qi Ming · Lingjuan Miao · Zhe Ma · Lin Zhao · Zhiqiang Zhou · Xuhui Huang · Yuanpei Chen · Yufei Guo

Intersection-over-Union (IoU) is the most popular metric to evaluate regression performance in 3D object detection. Recently, there are also some methods applying IoU to the optimization of 3D bounding box regression. However, we demonstrate through experiments and mathematical proof that the 3D IoU loss suffers from abnormal gradient w.r.t. angular error and object scale, which further leads to slow convergence and suboptimal regression process, respectively. In this paper, we propose a Gradient-Corrected IoU (GCIoU) loss to achieve fast and accurate 3D bounding box regression. Specifically, a gradient correction strategy is designed to endow 3D IoU loss with a reasonable gradient. It ensures that the model converges quickly in the early stage of training, and helps to achieve fine-grained refinement of bounding boxes in the later stage. To solve suboptimal regression of 3D IoU loss for objects at different scales, we introduce a gradient rescaling strategy to adaptively optimize the step size. Finally, we integrate GCIoU Loss into multiple models to achieve stable performance gains and faster model convergence. Experiments on KITTI dataset demonstrate superiority of the proposed method. The code is available at

SlowLiDAR: Increasing the Latency of LiDAR-Based Detection Using Adversarial Examples

Han Liu · Yuhao Wu · Zhiyuan Yu · Yevgeniy Vorobeychik · Ning Zhang

LiDAR-based perception is a central component of autonomous driving, playing a key role in tasks such as vehicle localization and obstacle detection. Since the safety of LiDAR-based perceptual pipelines is critical to safe autonomous driving, a number of past efforts have investigated its vulnerability under adversarial perturbations of raw point cloud inputs. However, most such efforts have focused on investigating the impact of such perturbations on predictions (integrity), and little has been done to understand the impact on latency (availability), a critical concern for real-time cyber-physical systems. We present the first systematic investigation of the availability of LiDAR detection pipelines, and SlowLiDAR, an adversarial perturbation attack that maximizes LiDAR detection runtime. The attack overcomes the technical challenges posed by the non-differentiable parts of the LiDAR detection pipelines by using differentiable proxies and uses a novel loss function that effectively captures the impact of adversarial perturbations on the execution time of the pipeline. Extensive experimental results show that SlowLiDAR can significantly increase the latency of the six most popular LiDAR detection pipelines while maintaining imperceptibility.

Normalizing Flow Based Feature Synthesis for Outlier-Aware Object Detection

Nishant Kumar · Siniša Šegvić · Abouzar Eslami · Stefan Gumhold

Real-world deployment of reliable object detectors is crucial for applications such as autonomous driving. However, general-purpose object detectors like Faster R-CNN are prone to providing overconfident predictions for outlier objects. Recent outlier-aware object detection approaches estimate the density of instance-wide features with class-conditional Gaussians and train on synthesized outlier features from their low-likelihood regions. However, this strategy does not guarantee that the synthesized outlier features will have a low likelihood according to the other class-conditional Gaussians. We propose a novel outlier-aware object detection framework that distinguishes outliers from inlier objects by learning the joint data distribution of all inlier classes with an invertible normalizing flow. The appropriate sampling of the flow model ensures that the synthesized outliers have a lower likelihood than inliers of all object classes, thereby modeling a better decision boundary between inlier and outlier objects. Our approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art for outlier-aware object detection on both image and video datasets.

OcTr: Octree-Based Transformer for 3D Object Detection

Chao Zhou · Yanan Zhang · Jiaxin Chen · Di Huang

A key challenge for LiDAR-based 3D object detection is to capture sufficient features from large scale 3D scenes especially for distant or/and occluded objects. Albeit recent efforts made by Transformers with the long sequence modeling capability, they fail to properly balance the accuracy and efficiency, suffering from inadequate receptive fields or coarse-grained holistic correlations. In this paper, we propose an Octree-based Transformer, named OcTr, to address this issue. It first constructs a dynamic octree on the hierarchical feature pyramid through conducting self-attention on the top level and then recursively propagates to the level below restricted by the octants, which captures rich global context in a coarse-to-fine manner while maintaining the computational complexity under control. Furthermore, for enhanced foreground perception, we propose a hybrid positional embedding, composed of the semantic-aware positional embedding and attention mask, to fully exploit semantic and geometry clues. Extensive experiments are conducted on the Waymo Open Dataset and KITTI Dataset, and OcTr reaches newly state-of-the-art results.

HypLiLoc: Towards Effective LiDAR Pose Regression With Hyperbolic Fusion

Sijie Wang · Qiyu Kang · Rui She · Wei Wang · Kai Zhao · Yang Song · Wee Peng Tay

LiDAR relocalization plays a crucial role in many fields, including robotics, autonomous driving, and computer vision. LiDAR-based retrieval from a database typically incurs high computation storage costs and can lead to globally inaccurate pose estimations if the database is too sparse. On the other hand, pose regression methods take images or point clouds as inputs and directly regress global poses in an end-to-end manner. They do not perform database matching and are more computationally efficient than retrieval techniques. We propose HypLiLoc, a new model for LiDAR pose regression. We use two branched backbones to extract 3D features and 2D projection features, respectively. We consider multi-modal feature fusion in both Euclidean and hyperbolic spaces to obtain more effective feature representations. Experimental results indicate that HypLiLoc achieves state-of-the-art performance in both outdoor and indoor datasets. We also conduct extensive ablation studies on the framework design, which demonstrate the effectiveness of multi-modal feature extraction and multi-space embedding. Our code is released at:

LiDAR2Map: In Defense of LiDAR-Based Semantic Map Construction Using Online Camera Distillation

Song Wang · Wentong Li · Wenyu Liu · Xiaolu Liu · Jianke Zhu

Semantic map construction under bird’s-eye view (BEV) plays an essential role in autonomous driving. In contrast to camera image, LiDAR provides the accurate 3D observations to project the captured 3D features onto BEV space inherently. However, the vanilla LiDAR-based BEV feature often contains many indefinite noises, where the spatial features have little texture and semantic cues. In this paper, we propose an effective LiDAR-based method to build semantic map. Specifically, we introduce a BEV pyramid feature decoder that learns the robust multi-scale BEV features for semantic map construction, which greatly boosts the accuracy of the LiDAR-based method. To mitigate the defects caused by lacking semantic cues in LiDAR data, we present an online Camera-to-LiDAR distillation scheme to facilitate the semantic learning from image to point cloud. Our distillation scheme consists of feature-level and logit-level distillation to absorb the semantic information from camera in BEV. The experimental results on challenging nuScenes dataset demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed LiDAR2Map on semantic map construction, which significantly outperforms the previous LiDAR-based methods over 27.9% mIoU and even performs better than the state-of-the-art camera-based approaches. Source code is available at:

MSF: Motion-Guided Sequential Fusion for Efficient 3D Object Detection From Point Cloud Sequences

Chenhang He · Ruihuang Li · Yabin Zhang · Shuai Li · Lei Zhang

Point cloud sequences are commonly used to accurately detect 3D objects in applications such as autonomous driving. Current top-performing multi-frame detectors mostly follow a Detect-and-Fuse framework, which extracts features from each frame of the sequence and fuses them to detect the objects in the current frame. However, this inevitably leads to redundant computation since adjacent frames are highly correlated. In this paper, we propose an efficient Motion-guided Sequential Fusion (MSF) method, which exploits the continuity of object motion to mine useful sequential contexts for object detection in the current frame. We first generate 3D proposals on the current frame and propagate them to preceding frames based on the estimated velocities. The points-of-interest are then pooled from the sequence and encoded as proposal features. A novel Bidirectional Feature Aggregation (BiFA) module is further proposed to facilitate the interactions of proposal features across frames. Besides, we optimize the point cloud pooling by a voxel-based sampling technique so that millions of points can be processed in several milliseconds. The proposed MSF method achieves not only better efficiency than other multi-frame detectors but also leading accuracy, with 83.12% and 78.30% mAP on the LEVEL1 and LEVEL2 test sets of Waymo Open Dataset, respectively. Codes can be found at

SFD2: Semantic-Guided Feature Detection and Description

Fei Xue · Ignas Budvytis · Roberto Cipolla

Visual localization is a fundamental task for various applications including autonomous driving and robotics. Prior methods focus on extracting large amounts of often redundant locally reliable features, resulting in limited efficiency and accuracy, especially in large-scale environments under challenging conditions. Instead, we propose to extract globally reliable features by implicitly embedding high-level semantics into both the detection and description processes. Specifically, our semantic-aware detector is able to detect keypoints from reliable regions (e.g. building, traffic lane) and suppress reliable areas (e.g. sky, car) implicitly instead of relying on explicit semantic labels. This boosts the accuracy of keypoint matching by reducing the number of features sensitive to appearance changes and avoiding the need of additional segmentation networks at test time. Moreover, our descriptors are augmented with semantics and have stronger discriminative ability, providing more inliers at test time. Particularly, experiments on long-term large-scale visual localization Aachen Day-Night and RobotCar-Seasons datasets demonstrate that our model outperforms previous local features and gives competitive accuracy to advanced matchers but is about 2 and 3 times faster when using 2k and 4k keypoints, respectively.

Temporal Consistent 3D LiDAR Representation Learning for Semantic Perception in Autonomous Driving

Lucas Nunes · Louis Wiesmann · Rodrigo Marcuzzi · Xieyuanli Chen · Jens Behley · Cyrill Stachniss

Semantic perception is a core building block in autonomous driving, since it provides information about the drivable space and location of other traffic participants. For learning-based perception, often a large amount of diverse training data is necessary to achieve high performance. Data labeling is usually a bottleneck for developing such methods, especially for dense prediction tasks, e.g., semantic segmentation or panoptic segmentation. For 3D LiDAR data, the annotation process demands even more effort than for images. Especially in autonomous driving, point clouds are sparse, and objects appearance depends on its distance from the sensor, making it harder to acquire large amounts of labeled training data. This paper aims at taking an alternative path proposing a self-supervised representation learning method for 3D LiDAR data. Our approach exploits the vehicle motion to match objects across time viewed in different scans. We then train a model to maximize the point-wise feature similarities from points of the associated object in different scans, which enables to learn a consistent representation across time. The experimental results show that our approach performs better than previous state-of-the-art self-supervised representation learning methods when fine-tuning to different downstream tasks. We furthermore show that with only 10% of labeled data, a network pre-trained with our approach can achieve better performance than the same network trained from scratch with all labels for semantic segmentation on SemanticKITTI.

Unsupervised 3D Point Cloud Representation Learning by Triangle Constrained Contrast for Autonomous Driving

Bo Pang · Hongchi Xia · Cewu Lu

Due to the difficulty of annotating the 3D LiDAR data of autonomous driving, an efficient unsupervised 3D representation learning method is important. In this paper, we design the Triangle Constrained Contrast (TriCC) framework tailored for autonomous driving scenes which learns 3D unsupervised representations through both the multimodal information and dynamic of temporal sequences. We treat one camera image and two LiDAR point clouds with different timestamps as a triplet. And our key design is the consistent constraint that automatically finds matching relationships among the triplet through “self-cycle” and learns representations from it. With the matching relations across the temporal dimension and modalities, we can further conduct a triplet contrast to improve learning efficiency. To the best of our knowledge, TriCC is the first framework that unifies both the temporal and multimodal semantics, which means it utilizes almost all the information in autonomous driving scenes. And compared with previous contrastive methods, it can automatically dig out contrasting pairs with higher difficulty, instead of relying on handcrafted ones. Extensive experiments are conducted with Minkowski-UNet and VoxelNet on several semantic segmentation and 3D detection datasets. Results show that TriCC learns effective representations with much fewer training iterations and improves the SOTA results greatly on all the downstream tasks. Code and models can be found at

RangeViT: Towards Vision Transformers for 3D Semantic Segmentation in Autonomous Driving

Angelika Ando · Spyros Gidaris · Andrei Bursuc · Gilles Puy · Alexandre Boulch · Renaud Marlet

Casting semantic segmentation of outdoor LiDAR point clouds as a 2D problem, e.g., via range projection, is an effective and popular approach. These projection-based methods usually benefit from fast computations and, when combined with techniques which use other point cloud representations, achieve state-of-the-art results. Today, projection-based methods leverage 2D CNNs but recent advances in computer vision show that vision transformers (ViTs) have achieved state-of-the-art results in many image-based benchmarks. In this work, we question if projection-based methods for 3D semantic segmentation can benefit from these latest improvements on ViTs. We answer positively but only after combining them with three key ingredients: (a) ViTs are notoriously hard to train and require a lot of training data to learn powerful representations. By preserving the same backbone architecture as for RGB images, we can exploit the knowledge from long training on large image collections that are much cheaper to acquire and annotate than point clouds. We reach our best results with pre-trained ViTs on large image datasets. (b) We compensate ViTs’ lack of inductive bias by substituting a tailored convolutional stem for the classical linear embedding layer. (c) We refine pixel-wise predictions with a convolutional decoder and a skip connection from the convolutional stem to combine low-level but fine-grained features of the the convolutional stem with the high-level but coarse predictions of the ViT encoder. With these ingredients, we show that our method, called RangeViT, outperforms existing projection-based methods on nuScenes and SemanticKITTI. The code is available at

Spatiotemporal Self-Supervised Learning for Point Clouds in the Wild

Yanhao Wu · Tong Zhang · Wei Ke · Sabine Süsstrunk · Mathieu Salzmann

Self-supervised learning (SSL) has the potential to benefit many applications, particularly those where manually annotating data is cumbersome. One such situation is the semantic segmentation of point clouds. In this context, existing methods employ contrastive learning strategies and define positive pairs by performing various augmentation of point clusters in a single frame. As such, these methods do not exploit the temporal nature of LiDAR data. In this paper, we introduce an SSL strategy that leverages positive pairs in both the spatial and temporal domains. To this end, we design (i) a point-to-cluster learning strategy that aggregates spatial information to distinguish objects; and (ii) a cluster-to-cluster learning strategy based on unsupervised object tracking that exploits temporal correspondences. We demonstrate the benefits of our approach via extensive experiments performed by self-supervised training on two large-scale LiDAR datasets and transferring the resulting models to other point cloud segmentation benchmarks. Our results evidence that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art point cloud SSL methods.

Change-Aware Sampling and Contrastive Learning for Satellite Images

Utkarsh Mall · Bharath Hariharan · Kavita Bala

Automatic remote sensing tools can help inform many large-scale challenges such as disaster management, climate change, etc. While a vast amount of spatio-temporal satellite image data is readily available, most of it remains unlabelled. Without labels, this data is not very useful for supervised learning algorithms. Self-supervised learning instead provides a way to learn effective representations for various downstream tasks without labels. In this work, we leverage characteristics unique to satellite images to learn better self-supervised features. Specifically, we use the temporal signal to contrast images with long-term and short-term differences, and we leverage the fact that satellite images do not change frequently. Using these characteristics, we formulate a new loss contrastive loss called Change-Aware Contrastive (CACo) Loss. Further, we also present a novel method of sampling different geographical regions. We show that leveraging these properties leads to better performance on diverse downstream tasks. For example, we see a 6.5% relative improvement for semantic segmentation and an 8.5% relative improvement for change detection over the best-performing baseline with our method.

Self-Supervised 3D Scene Flow Estimation Guided by Superpoints

Yaqi Shen · Le Hui · Jin Xie · Jian Yang

3D scene flow estimation aims to estimate point-wise motions between two consecutive frames of point clouds. Superpoints, i.e., points with similar geometric features, are usually employed to capture similar motions of local regions in 3D scenes for scene flow estimation. However, in existing methods, superpoints are generated with the offline clustering methods, which cannot characterize local regions with similar motions for complex 3D scenes well, leading to inaccurate scene flow estimation. To this end, we propose an iterative end-to-end superpoint based scene flow estimation framework, where the superpoints can be dynamically updated to guide the point-level flow prediction. Specifically, our framework consists of a flow guided superpoint generation module and a superpoint guided flow refinement module. In our superpoint generation module, we utilize the bidirectional flow information at the previous iteration to obtain the matching points of points and superpoint centers for soft point-to-superpoint association construction, in which the superpoints are generated for pairwise point clouds. With the generated superpoints, we first reconstruct the flow for each point by adaptively aggregating the superpoint-level flow, and then encode the consistency between the reconstructed flow of pairwise point clouds. Finally, we feed the consistency encoding along with the reconstructed flow into GRU to refine point-level flow. Extensive experiments on several different datasets show that our method can achieve promising performance.

SCOOP: Self-Supervised Correspondence and Optimization-Based Scene Flow

Itai Lang · Dror Aiger · Forrester Cole · Shai Avidan · Michael Rubinstein

Scene flow estimation is a long-standing problem in computer vision, where the goal is to find the 3D motion of a scene from its consecutive observations. Recently, there have been efforts to compute the scene flow from 3D point clouds. A common approach is to train a regression model that consumes source and target point clouds and outputs the per-point translation vector. An alternative is to learn point matches between the point clouds concurrently with regressing a refinement of the initial correspondence flow. In both cases, the learning task is very challenging since the flow regression is done in the free 3D space, and a typical solution is to resort to a large annotated synthetic dataset. We introduce SCOOP, a new method for scene flow estimation that can be learned on a small amount of data without employing ground-truth flow supervision. In contrast to previous work, we train a pure correspondence model focused on learning point feature representation and initialize the flow as the difference between a source point and its softly corresponding target point. Then, in the run-time phase, we directly optimize a flow refinement component with a self-supervised objective, which leads to a coherent and accurate flow field between the point clouds. Experiments on widespread datasets demonstrate the performance gains achieved by our method compared to existing leading techniques while using a fraction of the training data. Our code is publicly available.

PiMAE: Point Cloud and Image Interactive Masked Autoencoders for 3D Object Detection

Anthony Chen · Kevin Zhang · Renrui Zhang · Zihan Wang · Yuheng Lu · Yandong Guo · Shanghang Zhang

Masked Autoencoders learn strong visual representations and achieve state-of-the-art results in several independent modalities, yet very few works have addressed their capabilities in multi-modality settings. In this work, we focus on point cloud and RGB image data, two modalities that are often presented together in the real world and explore their meaningful interactions. To improve upon the cross-modal synergy in existing works, we propose PiMAE, a self-supervised pre-training framework that promotes 3D and 2D interaction through three aspects. Specifically, we first notice the importance of masking strategies between the two sources and utilize a projection module to complementarily align the mask and visible tokens of the two modalities. Then, we utilize a well-crafted two-branch MAE pipeline with a novel shared decoder to promote cross-modality interaction in the mask tokens. Finally, we design a unique cross-modal reconstruction module to enhance representation learning for both modalities. Through extensive experiments performed on large-scale RGB-D scene understanding benchmarks (SUN RGB-D and ScannetV2), we discover it is nontrivial to interactively learn point-image features, where we greatly improve multiple 3D detectors, 2D detectors and few-shot classifiers by 2.9%, 6.7%, and 2.4%, respectively. Code is available at

CP3: Channel Pruning Plug-In for Point-Based Networks

Yaomin Huang · Ning Liu · Zhengping Che · Zhiyuan Xu · Chaomin Shen · Yaxin Peng · Guixu Zhang · Xinmei Liu · Feifei Feng · Jian Tang

Channel pruning has been widely studied as a prevailing method that effectively reduces both computational cost and memory footprint of the original network while keeping a comparable accuracy performance. Though great success has been achieved in channel pruning for 2D image-based convolutional networks (CNNs), existing works seldom extend the channel pruning methods to 3D point-based neural networks (PNNs). Directly implementing the 2D CNN channel pruning methods to PNNs undermine the performance of PNNs because of the different representations of 2D images and 3D point clouds as well as the network architecture disparity. In this paper, we proposed CP^3, which is a Channel Pruning Plug-in for Point-based network. CP^3 is elaborately designed to leverage the characteristics of point clouds and PNNs in order to enable 2D channel pruning methods for PNNs. Specifically, it presents a coordinate-enhanced channel importance metric to reflect the correlation between dimensional information and individual channel features, and it recycles the discarded points in PNN’s sampling process and reconsiders their potentially-exclusive information to enhance the robustness of channel pruning. Experiments on various PNN architectures show that CP^3 constantly improves state-of-the-art 2D CNN pruning approaches on different point cloud tasks. For instance, our compressed PointNeXt-S on ScanObjectNN achieves an accuracy of 88.52% with a pruning rate of 57.8%, outperforming the baseline pruning methods with an accuracy gain of 1.94%.

Binarizing Sparse Convolutional Networks for Efficient Point Cloud Analysis

Xiuwei Xu · Ziwei Wang · Jie Zhou · Jiwen Lu

In this paper, we propose binary sparse convolutional networks called BSC-Net for efficient point cloud analysis. We empirically observe that sparse convolution operation causes larger quantization errors than standard convolution. However, conventional network quantization methods directly binarize the weights and activations in sparse convolution, resulting in performance drop due to the significant quantization loss. On the contrary, we search the optimal subset of convolution operation that activates the sparse convolution at various locations for quantization error alleviation, and the performance gap between real-valued and binary sparse convolutional networks is closed without complexity overhead. Specifically, we first present the shifted sparse convolution that fuses the information in the receptive field for the active sites that match the pre-defined positions. Then we employ the differentiable search strategies to discover the optimal opsitions for active site matching in the shifted sparse convolution, and the quantization errors are significantly alleviated for efficient point cloud analysis. For fair evaluation of the proposed method, we empirically select the recently advances that are beneficial for sparse convolution network binarization to construct a strong baseline. The experimental results on ScanNet and NYU Depth v2 show that our BSC-Net achieves significant improvement upon our srtong baseline and outperforms the state-of-the-art network binarization methods by a remarkable margin without additional computation overhead for binarizing sparse convolutional networks.

Hyperspherical Embedding for Point Cloud Completion

Junming Zhang · Haomeng Zhang · Ram Vasudevan · Matthew Johnson-Roberson

Most real-world 3D measurements from depth sensors are incomplete, and to address this issue the point cloud completion task aims to predict the complete shapes of objects from partial observations. Previous works often adapt an encoder-decoder architecture, where the encoder is trained to extract embeddings that are used as inputs to generate predictions from the decoder. However, the learned embeddings have sparse distribution in the feature space, which leads to worse generalization results during testing. To address these problems, this paper proposes a hyperspherical module, which transforms and normalizes embeddings from the encoder to be on a unit hypersphere. With the proposed module, the magnitude and direction of the output hyperspherical embedding are decoupled and only the directional information is optimized. We theoretically analyze the hyperspherical embedding and show that it enables more stable training with a wider range of learning rates and more compact embedding distributions. Experiment results show consistent improvement of point cloud completion in both single-task and multi-task learning, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Attention-Based Point Cloud Edge Sampling

Chengzhi Wu · Junwei Zheng · Julius Pfrommer · Jürgen Beyerer

Point cloud sampling is a less explored research topic for this data representation. The most commonly used sampling methods are still classical random sampling and farthest point sampling. With the development of neural networks, various methods have been proposed to sample point clouds in a task-based learning manner. However, these methods are mostly generative-based, rather than selecting points directly using mathematical statistics. Inspired by the Canny edge detection algorithm for images and with the help of the attention mechanism, this paper proposes a non-generative Attention-based Point cloud Edge Sampling method (APES), which captures salient points in the point cloud outline. Both qualitative and quantitative experimental results show the superior performance of our sampling method on common benchmark tasks.

Starting From Non-Parametric Networks for 3D Point Cloud Analysis

Renrui Zhang · Liuhui Wang · Yali Wang · Peng Gao · Hongsheng Li · Jianbo Shi

We present a Non-parametric Network for 3D point cloud analysis, Point-NN, which consists of purely non-learnable components: farthest point sampling (FPS), k-nearest neighbors (k-NN), and pooling operations, with trigonometric functions. Surprisingly, it performs well on various 3D tasks, requiring no parameters or training, and even surpasses existing fully trained models. Starting from this basic non-parametric model, we propose two extensions. First, Point-NN can serve as a base architectural framework to construct Parametric Networks by simply inserting linear layers on top. Given the superior non-parametric foundation, the derived Point-PN exhibits a high performance-efficiency trade-off with only a few learnable parameters. Second, Point-NN can be regarded as a plug-and-play module for the already trained 3D models during inference. Point-NN captures the complementary geometric knowledge and enhances existing methods for different 3D benchmarks without re-training. We hope our work may cast a light on the community for understanding 3D point clouds with non-parametric methods. Code is available at

Grad-PU: Arbitrary-Scale Point Cloud Upsampling via Gradient Descent With Learned Distance Functions

Yun He · Danhang Tang · Yinda Zhang · Xiangyang Xue · Yanwei Fu

Most existing point cloud upsampling methods have roughly three steps: feature extraction, feature expansion and 3D coordinate prediction. However, they usually suffer from two critical issues: (1) fixed upsampling rate after one-time training, since the feature expansion unit is customized for each upsampling rate; (2) outliers or shrinkage artifact caused by the difficulty of precisely predicting 3D coordinates or residuals of upsampled points. To adress them, we propose a new framework for accurate point cloud upsampling that supports arbitrary upsampling rates. Our method first interpolates the low-res point cloud according to a given upsampling rate. And then refine the positions of the interpolated points with an iterative optimization process, guided by a trained model estimating the difference between the current point cloud and the high-res target. Extensive quantitative and qualitative results on benchmarks and downstream tasks demonstrate that our method achieves the state-of-the-art accuracy and efficiency.

SE-ORNet: Self-Ensembling Orientation-Aware Network for Unsupervised Point Cloud Shape Correspondence

Jiacheng Deng · Chuxin Wang · Jiahao Lu · Jianfeng He · Tianzhu Zhang · Jiyang Yu · Zhe Zhang

Unsupervised point cloud shape correspondence aims to obtain dense point-to-point correspondences between point clouds without manually annotated pairs. However, humans and some animals have bilateral symmetry and various orientations, which leads to severe mispredictions of symmetrical parts. Besides, point cloud noise disrupts consistent representations for point cloud and thus degrades the shape correspondence accuracy. To address the above issues, we propose a Self-Ensembling ORientation-aware Network termed SE-ORNet. The key of our approach is to exploit an orientation estimation module with a domain adaptive discriminator to align the orientations of point cloud pairs, which significantly alleviates the mispredictions of symmetrical parts. Additionally, we design a self-ensembling framework for unsupervised point cloud shape correspondence. In this framework, the disturbances of point cloud noise are overcome by perturbing the inputs of the student and teacher networks with different data augmentations and constraining the consistency of predictions. Extensive experiments on both human and animal datasets show that our SE-ORNet can surpass state-of-the-art unsupervised point cloud shape correspondence methods.

Robust 3D Shape Classification via Non-Local Graph Attention Network

Shengwei Qin · Zhong Li · Ligang Liu

We introduce a non-local graph attention network (NLGAT), which generates a novel global descriptor through two sub-networks for robust 3D shape classification. In the first sub-network, we capture the global relationships between points (i.e., point-point features) by designing a global relationship network (GRN). In the second sub-network, we enhance the local features with a geometric shape attention map obtained from a global structure network (GSN). To keep rotation invariant and extract more information from sparse point clouds, all sub-networks use the Gram matrices with different dimensions as input for working with robust classification. Additionally, GRN effectively preserves the low-frequency features and improves the classification results. Experimental results on various datasets exhibit that the classification effect of the NLGAT model is better than other state-of-the-art models. Especially, in the case of sparse point clouds (64 points) with noise under arbitrary SO(3) rotation, the classification result (85.4%) of NLGAT is improved by 39.4% compared with the best development of other methods.

Rotation-Invariant Transformer for Point Cloud Matching

Hao Yu · Zheng Qin · Ji Hou · Saleh · Dongsheng Li · Benjamin Busam · Slobodan Ilic

The intrinsic rotation invariance lies at the core of matching point clouds with handcrafted descriptors. However, it is widely despised by recent deep matchers that obtain the rotation invariance extrinsically via data augmentation. As the finite number of augmented rotations can never span the continuous SO(3) space, these methods usually show instability when facing rotations that are rarely seen. To this end, we introduce RoITr, a Rotation-Invariant Transformer to cope with the pose variations in the point cloud matching task. We contribute both on the local and global levels. Starting from the local level, we introduce an attention mechanism embedded with Point Pair Feature (PPF)-based coordinates to describe the pose-invariant geometry, upon which a novel attention-based encoder-decoder architecture is constructed. We further propose a global transformer with rotation-invariant cross-frame spatial awareness learned by the self-attention mechanism, which significantly improves the feature distinctiveness and makes the model robust with respect to the low overlap. Experiments are conducted on both the rigid and non-rigid public benchmarks, where RoITr outperforms all the state-of-the-art models by a considerable margin in the low-overlapping scenarios. Especially when the rotations are enlarged on the challenging 3DLoMatch benchmark, RoITr surpasses the existing methods by at least 13 and 5 percentage points in terms of Inlier Ratio and Registration Recall, respectively.

Deep Graph-Based Spatial Consistency for Robust Non-Rigid Point Cloud Registration

Zheng Qin · Hao Yu · Changjian Wang · Yuxing Peng · Kai Xu

We study the problem of outlier correspondence pruning for non-rigid point cloud registration. In rigid registration, spatial consistency has been a commonly used criterion to discriminate outliers from inliers. It measures the compatibility of two correspondences by the discrepancy between the respective distances in two point clouds. However, spatial consistency no longer holds in non-rigid cases and outlier rejection for non-rigid registration has not been well studied. In this work, we propose Graph-based Spatial Consistency Network (GraphSCNet) to filter outliers for non-rigid registration. Our method is based on the fact that non-rigid deformations are usually locally rigid, or local shape preserving. We first design a local spatial consistency measure over the deformation graph of the point cloud, which evaluates the spatial compatibility only between the correspondences in the vicinity of a graph node. An attention-based non-rigid correspondence embedding module is then devised to learn a robust representation of non-rigid correspondences from local spatial consistency. Despite its simplicity, GraphSCNet effectively improves the quality of the putative correspondences and attains state-of-the-art performance on three challenging benchmarks. Our code and models are available at

Efficient RGB-T Tracking via Cross-Modality Distillation

Tianlu Zhang · Hongyuan Guo · Qiang Jiao · Qiang Zhang · Jungong Han

Most current RGB-T trackers adopt a two-stream structure to extract unimodal RGB and thermal features and complex fusion strategies to achieve multi-modal feature fusion, which require a huge number of parameters, thus hindering their real-life applications. On the other hand, a compact RGB-T tracker may be computationally efficient but encounter non-negligible performance degradation, due to the weakening of feature representation ability. To remedy this situation, a cross-modality distillation framework is presented to bridge the performance gap between a compact tracker and a powerful tracker. Specifically, a specific-common feature distillation module is proposed to transform the modality-common information as well as the modality-specific information from a deeper two-stream network to a shallower single-stream network. In addition, a multi-path selection distillation module is proposed to instruct a simple fusion module to learn more accurate multi-modal information from a well-designed fusion mechanism by using multiple paths. We validate the effectiveness of our method with extensive experiments on three RGB-T benchmarks, which achieves state-of-the-art performance but consumes much less computational resources.

Finding Geometric Models by Clustering in the Consensus Space

Daniel Barath · Denys Rozumnyi · Ivan Eichhardt · Levente Hajder · Jiri Matas

We propose a new algorithm for finding an unknown number of geometric models, e.g., homographies. The problem is formalized as finding dominant model instances progressively without forming crisp point-to-model assignments. Dominant instances are found via a RANSAC-like sampling and a consolidation process driven by a model quality function considering previously proposed instances. New ones are found by clustering in the consensus space. This new formulation leads to a simple iterative algorithm with state-of-the-art accuracy while running in real-time on a number of vision problems -- at least two orders of magnitude faster than the competitors on two-view motion estimation. Also, we propose a deterministic sampler reflecting the fact that real-world data tend to form spatially coherent structures. The sampler returns connected components in a progressively densified neighborhood-graph. We present a number of applications where the use of multiple geometric models improves accuracy. These include pose estimation from multiple generalized homographies; trajectory estimation of fast-moving objects; and we also propose a way of using multiple homographies in global SfM algorithms. Source code:

Adaptive Assignment for Geometry Aware Local Feature Matching

Dihe Huang · Ying Chen · Yong Liu · Jianlin Liu · Shang Xu · Wenlong Wu · Yikang Ding · Fan Tang · Chengjie Wang

The detector-free feature matching approaches are currently attracting great attention thanks to their excellent performance. However, these methods still struggle at large-scale and viewpoint variations, due to the geometric inconsistency resulting from the application of the mutual nearest neighbour criterion (i.e., one-to-one assignment) in patch-level matching. Accordingly, we introduce AdaMatcher, which first accomplishes the feature correlation and co-visible area estimation through an elaborate feature interaction module, then performs adaptive assignment on patch-level matching while estimating the scales between images, and finally refines the co-visible matches through scale alignment and sub-pixel regression module. Extensive experiments show that AdaMatcher outperforms solid baselines and achieves state-of-the-art results on many downstream tasks. Additionally, the adaptive assignment and sub-pixel refinement module can be used as a refinement network for other matching methods, such as SuperGlue, to boost their performance further. The code will be publicly available at

Masked Representation Learning for Domain Generalized Stereo Matching

Zhibo Rao · Bangshu Xiong · Mingyi He · Mochu Xiang · Renjie He · Zhelun Shen · Xing Li

Recently, many deep stereo matching methods have begun to focus on cross-domain performance, achieving impressive achievements. However, these methods did not deal with the significant volatility of generalization performance among different training epochs. Inspired by masked representation learning and multi-task learning, this paper designs a simple and effective masked representation for domain generalized stereo matching. First, we feed the masked left and complete right images as input into the models. Then, we add a lightweight and simple decoder following the feature extraction module to recover the original left image. Finally, we train the models with two tasks (stereo matching and image reconstruction) as a pseudo-multi-task learning framework, promoting models to learn structure information and to improve generalization performance. We implement our method on two well-known architectures (CFNet and LacGwcNet) to demonstrate its effectiveness. Experimental results on multi-datasets show that: (1) our method can be easily plugged into the current various stereo matching models to improve generalization performance; (2) our method can reduce the significant volatility of generalization performance among different training epochs; (3) we find that the current methods prefer to choose the best results among different training epochs as generalization performance, but it is impossible to select the best performance by ground truth in practice.

Learning Optical Expansion From Scale Matching

Han Ling · Yinghui Sun · Quansen Sun · Zhenwen Ren

This paper address the problem of optical expansion (OE). OE describes the object scale change between two frames, widely used in monocular 3D vision tasks. Previous methods estimate optical expansion mainly from optical flow results, but this two-stage architecture makes their results limited by the accuracy of optical flow and less robust. To solve these problems, we propose the concept of 3D optical flow by integrating optical expansion into the 2D optical flow, which is implemented by a plug-and-play module, namely TPCV. TPCV implements matching features at the correct location and scale, thus allowing the simultaneous optimization of optical flow and optical expansion tasks. Experimentally, we apply TPCV to the RAFT optical flow baseline. Experimental results show that the baseline optical flow performance is substantially improved. Moreover, we apply the optical flow and optical expansion results to various dynamic 3D vision tasks, including motion-in-depth, time-to-collision, and scene flow, often achieving significant improvement over the prior SOTA. Code will be available at

AnyFlow: Arbitrary Scale Optical Flow With Implicit Neural Representation

Hyunyoung Jung · Zhuo Hui · Lei Luo · Haitao Yang · Feng Liu · Sungjoo Yoo · Rakesh Ranjan · Denis Demandolx

To apply optical flow in practice, it is often necessary to resize the input to smaller dimensions in order to reduce computational costs. However, downsizing inputs makes the estimation more challenging because objects and motion ranges become smaller. Even though recent approaches have demonstrated high-quality flow estimation, they tend to fail to accurately model small objects and precise boundaries when the input resolution is lowered, restricting their applicability to high-resolution inputs. In this paper, we introduce AnyFlow, a robust network that estimates accurate flow from images of various resolutions. By representing optical flow as a continuous coordinate-based representation, AnyFlow generates outputs at arbitrary scales from low-resolution inputs, demonstrating superior performance over prior works in capturing tiny objects with detail preservation on a wide range of scenes. We establish a new state-of-the-art performance of cross-dataset generalization on the KITTI dataset, while achieving comparable accuracy on the online benchmarks to other SOTA methods.

HouseDiffusion: Vector Floorplan Generation via a Diffusion Model With Discrete and Continuous Denoising

Mohammad Amin Shabani · Sepidehsadat Hosseini · Yasutaka Furukawa

The paper presents a novel approach for vector-floorplan generation via a diffusion model, which denoises 2D coordinates of room/door corners with two inference objectives: 1) a single-step noise as the continuous quantity to precisely invert the continuous forward process; and 2) the final 2D coordinate as the discrete quantity to establish geometric incident relationships such as parallelism, orthogonality, and corner-sharing. Our task is graph-conditioned floorplan generation, a common workflow in floorplan design. We represent a floorplan as 1D polygonal loops, each of which corresponds to a room or a door. Our diffusion model employs a Transformer architecture at the core, which controls the attention masks based on the input graph-constraint and directly generates vector-graphics floorplans via a discrete and continuous denoising process. We have evaluated our approach on RPLAN dataset. The proposed approach makes significant improvements in all the metrics against the state-of-the-art with significant margins, while being capable of generating non-Manhattan structures and controlling the exact number of corners per room. We will share all our code and models.

Localized Semantic Feature Mixers for Efficient Pedestrian Detection in Autonomous Driving

Abdul Hannan Khan · Mohammed Shariq Nawaz · Andreas Dengel

Autonomous driving systems rely heavily on the underlying perception module which needs to be both performant and efficient to allow precise decisions in real-time. Avoiding collisions with pedestrians is of topmost priority in any autonomous driving system. Therefore, pedestrian detection is one of the core parts of such systems’ perception modules. Current state-of-the-art pedestrian detectors have two major issues. Firstly, they have long inference times which affect the efficiency of the whole perception module, and secondly, their performance in the case of small and heavily occluded pedestrians is poor. We propose Localized Semantic Feature Mixers (LSFM), a novel, anchor-free pedestrian detection architecture. It uses our novel Super Pixel Pyramid Pooling module instead of the, computationally costly, Feature Pyramid Networks for feature encoding. Moreover, our MLPMixer-based Dense Focal Detection Network is used as a light detection head, reducing computational effort and inference time compared to existing approaches. To boost the performance of the proposed architecture, we adapt and use mixup augmentation which improves the performance, especially in small and heavily occluded cases. We benchmark LSFM against the state-of-the-art on well-established traffic scene pedestrian datasets. The proposed LSFM achieves state-of-the-art performance in Caltech, City Persons, Euro City Persons, and TJU-Traffic-Pedestrian datasets while reducing the inference time on average by 55%. Further, LSFM beats the human baseline for the first time in the history of pedestrian detection. Finally, we conducted a cross-dataset evaluation which proved that our proposed LSFM generalizes well to unseen data.

V2X-Seq: A Large-Scale Sequential Dataset for Vehicle-Infrastructure Cooperative Perception and Forecasting

Haibao Yu · Wenxian Yang · Hongzhi Ruan · Zhenwei Yang · Yingjuan Tang · Xu Gao · Xin Hao · Yifeng Shi · Yifeng Pan · Ning Sun · Juan Song · Jirui Yuan · Ping Luo · Zaiqing Nie

Utilizing infrastructure and vehicle-side information to track and forecast the behaviors of surrounding traffic participants can significantly improve decision-making and safety in autonomous driving. However, the lack of real-world sequential datasets limits research in this area. To address this issue, we introduce V2X-Seq, the first large-scale sequential V2X dataset, which includes data frames, trajectories, vector maps, and traffic lights captured from natural scenery. V2X-Seq comprises two parts: the sequential perception dataset, which includes more than 15,000 frames captured from 95 scenarios, and the trajectory forecasting dataset, which contains about 80,000 infrastructure-view scenarios, 80,000 vehicle-view scenarios, and 50,000 cooperative-view scenarios captured from 28 intersections’ areas, covering 672 hours of data. Based on V2X-Seq, we introduce three new tasks for vehicle-infrastructure cooperative (VIC) autonomous driving: VIC3D Tracking, Online-VIC Forecasting, and Offline-VIC Forecasting. We also provide benchmarks for the introduced tasks. Find data, code, and more up-to-date information at

ViP3D: End-to-End Visual Trajectory Prediction via 3D Agent Queries

Junru Gu · Chenxu Hu · Tianyuan Zhang · Xuanyao Chen · Yilun Wang · Yue Wang · Hang Zhao

Perception and prediction are two separate modules in the existing autonomous driving systems. They interact with each other via hand-picked features such as agent bounding boxes and trajectories. Due to this separation, prediction, as a downstream module, only receives limited information from the perception module. To make matters worse, errors from the perception modules can propagate and accumulate, adversely affecting the prediction results. In this work, we propose ViP3D, a query-based visual trajectory prediction pipeline that exploits rich information from raw videos to directly predict future trajectories of agents in a scene. ViP3D employs sparse agent queries to detect, track, and predict throughout the pipeline, making it the first fully differentiable vision-based trajectory prediction approach. Instead of using historical feature maps and trajectories, useful information from previous timestamps is encoded in agent queries, which makes ViP3D a concise streaming prediction method. Furthermore, extensive experimental results on the nuScenes dataset show the strong vision-based prediction performance of ViP3D over traditional pipelines and previous end-to-end models.

IPCC-TP: Utilizing Incremental Pearson Correlation Coefficient for Joint Multi-Agent Trajectory Prediction

Dekai Zhu · Guangyao Zhai · Yan Di · Fabian Manhardt · Hendrik Berkemeyer · Tuan Tran · Nassir Navab · Federico Tombari · Benjamin Busam

Reliable multi-agent trajectory prediction is crucial for the safe planning and control of autonomous systems. Compared with single-agent cases, the major challenge in simultaneously processing multiple agents lies in modeling complex social interactions caused by various driving intentions and road conditions. Previous methods typically leverage graph-based message propagation or attention mechanism to encapsulate such interactions in the format of marginal probabilistic distributions. However, it is inherently sub-optimal. In this paper, we propose IPCC-TP, a novel relevance-aware module based on Incremental Pearson Correlation Coefficient to improve multi-agent interaction modeling. IPCC-TP learns pairwise joint Gaussian Distributions through the tightly-coupled estimation of the means and covariances according to interactive incremental movements. Our module can be conveniently embedded into existing multi-agent prediction methods to extend original motion distribution decoders. Extensive experiments on nuScenes and Argoverse 2 datasets demonstrate that IPCC-TP improves the performance of baselines by a large margin.

Leapfrog Diffusion Model for Stochastic Trajectory Prediction

Weibo Mao · Chenxin Xu · Qi Zhu · Siheng Chen · Yanfeng Wang

To model the indeterminacy of human behaviors, stochastic trajectory prediction requires a sophisticated multi-modal distribution of future trajectories. Emerging diffusion models have revealed their tremendous representation capacities in numerous generation tasks, showing potential for stochastic trajectory prediction. However, expensive time consumption prevents diffusion models from real-time prediction, since a large number of denoising steps are required to assure sufficient representation ability. To resolve the dilemma, we present LEapfrog Diffusion model (LED), a novel diffusion-based trajectory prediction model, which provides real-time, precise, and diverse predictions. The core of the proposed LED is to leverage a trainable leapfrog initializer to directly learn an expressive multi-modal distribution of future trajectories, which skips a large number of denoising steps, significantly accelerating inference speed. Moreover, the leapfrog initializer is trained to appropriately allocate correlated samples to provide a diversity of predicted future trajectories, significantly improving prediction performances. Extensive experiments on four real-world datasets, including NBA/NFL/SDD/ETH-UCY, show that LED consistently improves performance and achieves 23.7%/21.9% ADE/FDE improvement on NFL. The proposed LED also speeds up the inference 19.3/30.8/24.3/25.1 times compared to the standard diffusion model on NBA/NFL/SDD/ETH-UCY, satisfying real-time inference needs. Code is available at

DeFeeNet: Consecutive 3D Human Motion Prediction With Deviation Feedback

Xiaoning Sun · Huaijiang Sun · Bin Li · Dong Wei · Weiqing Li · Jianfeng Lu

Let us rethink the real-world scenarios that require human motion prediction techniques, such as human-robot collaboration. Current works simplify the task of predicting human motions into a one-off process of forecasting a short future sequence (usually no longer than 1 second) based on a historical observed one. However, such simplification may fail to meet practical needs due to the neglect of the fact that motion prediction in real applications is not an isolated “observe then predict” unit, but a consecutive process composed of many rounds of such unit, semi-overlapped along the entire sequence. As time goes on, the predicted part of previous round has its corresponding ground truth observable in the new round, but their deviation in-between is neither exploited nor able to be captured by existing isolated learning fashion. In this paper, we propose DeFeeNet, a simple yet effective network that can be added on existing one-off prediction models to realize deviation perception and feedback when applied to consecutive motion prediction task. At each prediction round, the deviation generated by previous unit is first encoded by our DeFeeNet, and then incorporated into the existing predictor to enable a deviation-aware prediction manner, which, for the first time, allows for information transmit across adjacent prediction units. We design two versions of DeFeeNet as MLP-based and GRU-based, respectively. On Human3.6M and more complicated BABEL, experimental results indicate that our proposed network improves consecutive human motion prediction performance regardless of the basic model.

Self-Correctable and Adaptable Inference for Generalizable Human Pose Estimation

Zhehan Kan · Shuoshuo Chen · Ce Zhang · Yushun Tang · Zhihai He

A central challenge in human pose estimation, as well as in many other machine learning and prediction tasks, is the generalization problem. The learned network does not have the capability to characterize the prediction error, generate feedback information from the test sample, and correct the prediction error on the fly for each individual test sample, which results in degraded performance in generalization. In this work, we introduce a self-correctable and adaptable inference (SCAI) method to address the generalization challenge of network prediction and use human pose estimation as an example to demonstrate its effectiveness and performance. We learn a correction network to correct the prediction result conditioned by a fitness feedback error. This feedback error is generated by a learned fitness feedback network which maps the prediction result to the original input domain and compares it against the original input. Interestingly, we find that this self-referential feedback error is highly correlated with the actual prediction error. This strong correlation suggests that we can use this error as feedback to guide the correction process. It can be also used as a loss function to quickly adapt and optimize the correction network during the inference process. Our extensive experimental results on human pose estimation demonstrate that the proposed SCAI method is able to significantly improve the generalization capability and performance of human pose estimation.

ReDirTrans: Latent-to-Latent Translation for Gaze and Head Redirection

Shiwei Jin · Zhen Wang · Lei Wang · Ning Bi · Truong Nguyen

Learning-based gaze estimation methods require large amounts of training data with accurate gaze annotations. Facing such demanding requirements of gaze data collection and annotation, several image synthesis methods were proposed, which successfully redirected gaze directions precisely given the assigned conditions. However, these methods focused on changing gaze directions of the images that only include eyes or restricted ranges of faces with low resolution (less than 128128) to largely reduce interference from other attributes such as hairs, which limits application scenarios. To cope with this limitation, we proposed a portable network, called ReDirTrans, achieving latent-to-latent translation for redirecting gaze directions and head orientations in an interpretable manner. ReDirTrans projects input latent vectors into aimed-attribute embeddings only and redirects these embeddings with assigned pitch and yaw values. Then both the initial and edited embeddings are projected back (deprojected) to the initial latent space as residuals to modify the input latent vectors by subtraction and addition, representing old status removal and new status addition. The projection of aimed attributes only and subtraction-addition operations for status replacement essentially mitigate impacts on other attributes and the distribution of latent vectors. Thus, by combining ReDirTrans with a pretrained fixed e4e-StyleGAN pair, we created ReDirTrans-GAN, which enables accurately redirecting gaze in full-face images with 10241024 resolution while preserving other attributes such as identity, expression, and hairstyle. Furthermore, we presented improvements for the downstream learning-based gaze estimation task, using redirected samples as dataset augmentation.

Feature Shrinkage Pyramid for Camouflaged Object Detection With Transformers

Zhou Huang · Hang Dai · Tian-Zhu Xiang · Shuo Wang · Huai-Xin Chen · Jie Qin · Huan Xiong

Vision transformers have recently shown strong global context modeling capabilities in camouflaged object detection. However, they suffer from two major limitations: less effective locality modeling and insufficient feature aggregation in decoders, which are not conducive to camouflaged object detection that explores subtle cues from indistinguishable backgrounds. To address these issues, in this paper, we propose a novel transformer-based Feature Shrinkage Pyramid Network (FSPNet), which aims to hierarchically decode locality-enhanced neighboring transformer features through progressive shrinking for camouflaged object detection. Specifically, we propose a non-local token enhancement module (NL-TEM) that employs the non-local mechanism to interact neighboring tokens and explore graph-based high-order relations within tokens to enhance local representations of transformers. Moreover, we design a feature shrinkage decoder (FSD) with adjacent interaction modules (AIM), which progressively aggregates adjacent transformer features through a layer-by-layer shrinkage pyramid to accumulate imperceptible but effective cues as much as possible for object information decoding. Extensive quantitative and qualitative experiments demonstrate that the proposed model significantly outperforms the existing 24 competitors on three challenging COD benchmark datasets under six widely-used evaluation metrics. Our code is publicly available at

OVTrack: Open-Vocabulary Multiple Object Tracking

Siyuan Li · Tobias Fischer · Lei Ke · Henghui Ding · Martin Danelljan · Fisher Yu

The ability to recognize, localize and track dynamic objects in a scene is fundamental to many real-world applications, such as self-driving and robotic systems. Yet, traditional multiple object tracking (MOT) benchmarks rely only on a few object categories that hardly represent the multitude of possible objects that are encountered in the real world. This leaves contemporary MOT methods limited to a small set of pre-defined object categories. In this paper, we address this limitation by tackling a novel task, open-vocabulary MOT, that aims to evaluate tracking beyond pre-defined training categories. We further develop OVTrack, an open-vocabulary tracker that is capable of tracking arbitrary object classes. Its design is based on two key ingredients: First, leveraging vision-language models for both classification and association via knowledge distillation; second, a data hallucination strategy for robust appearance feature learning from denoising diffusion probabilistic models. The result is an extremely data-efficient open-vocabulary tracker that sets a new state-of-the-art on the large-scale, large-vocabulary TAO benchmark, while being trained solely on static images. The project page is at

GaitGCI: Generative Counterfactual Intervention for Gait Recognition

Huanzhang Dou · Pengyi Zhang · Wei Su · Yunlong Yu · Yining Lin · Xi Li

Gait is one of the most promising biometrics that aims to identify pedestrians from their walking patterns. However, prevailing methods are susceptible to confounders, resulting in the networks hardly focusing on the regions that reflect effective walking patterns. To address this fundamental problem in gait recognition, we propose a Generative Counterfactual Intervention framework, dubbed GaitGCI, consisting of Counterfactual Intervention Learning (CIL) and Diversity-Constrained Dynamic Convolution (DCDC). CIL leverages causal inference to alleviate the impact of confounders by maximizing the likelihood difference between factual/counterfactual attention. DCDC adaptively generates sample-wise factual/counterfactual attention to perceive the sample properties. With matrix decomposition and diversity constraint, DCDC guarantees the model’s efficiency and effectiveness. Extensive experiments indicate that proposed GaitGCI: 1) could effectively focus on the discriminative and interpretable regions that reflect gait patterns; 2) is model-agnostic and could be plugged into existing models to improve performance with nearly no extra cost; 3) efficiently achieves state-of-the-art performance on arbitrary scenarios (in-the-lab and in-the-wild).

Multi-Label Compound Expression Recognition: C-EXPR Database & Network

Dimitrios Kollias

Research in automatic analysis of facial expressions mainly focuses on recognising the seven basic ones. However, compound expressions are more diverse and represent the complexity and subtlety of our daily affective displays more accurately. Limited research has been conducted for compound expression recognition (CER), because only a few databases exist, which are small, lab controlled, imbalanced and static. In this paper we present an in-the-wild A/V database, C-EXPR-DB, consisting of 400 videos of 200K frames, annotated in terms of 13 compound expressions, valence-arousal emotion descriptors, action units, speech, facial landmarks and attributes. We also propose C-EXPR-NET, a multi-task learning (MTL) method for CER and AU detection (AU-D); the latter task is introduced to enhance CER performance. For AU-D we incorporate AU semantic description along with visual information. For CER we use a multi-label formulation and the KL-divergence loss. We also propose a distribution matching loss for coupling CER and AU-D tasks to boost their performance and alleviate negative transfer (i.e., when MT model’s performance is worse than that of at least one single-task model). An extensive experimental study has been conducted illustrating the excellent performance of C-EXPR-NET, validating the theoretical claims. Finally, C-EXPR-NET is shown to effectively generalize its knowledge in new emotion recognition contexts, in a zero-shot manner.

Blemish-Aware and Progressive Face Retouching With Limited Paired Data

Lianxin Xie · Wen Xue · Zhen Xu · Si Wu · Zhiwen Yu · Hau San Wong

Face retouching aims to remove facial blemishes, while at the same time maintaining the textual details of a given input image. The main challenge lies in distinguishing blemishes from the facial characteristics, such as moles. Training an image-to-image translation network with pixel-wise supervision suffers from the problem of expensive paired training data, since professional retouching needs specialized experience and is time-consuming. In this paper, we propose a Blemish-aware and Progressive Face Retouching model, which is referred to as BPFRe. Our framework can be partitioned into two manageable stages to perform progressive blemish removal. Specifically, an encoder-decoder-based module learns to coarsely remove the blemishes at the first stage, and the resulting intermediate features are injected into a generator to enrich local detail at the second stage. We find that explicitly suppressing the blemishes can contribute to an effective collaboration among the components. Toward this end, we incorporate an attention module, which learns to infer a blemish-aware map and further determine the corresponding weights, which are then used to refine the intermediate features transferred from the encoder to the decoder, and from the decoder to the generator. Therefore, BPFRe is able to deliver significant performance gains on a wide range of face retouching tasks. It is worth noting that we reduce the dependence of BPFRe on paired training samples by imposing effective regularization on unpaired ones.

High-Fidelity and Freely Controllable Talking Head Video Generation

Yue Gao · Yuan Zhou · Jinglu Wang · Xiao Li · Xiang Ming · Yan Lu

Talking head generation is to generate video based on a given source identity and target motion. However, current methods face several challenges that limit the quality and controllability of the generated videos. First, the generated face often has unexpected deformation and severe distortions. Second, the driving image does not explicitly disentangle movement-relevant information, such as poses and expressions, which restricts the manipulation of different attributes during generation. Third, the generated videos tend to have flickering artifacts due to the inconsistency of the extracted landmarks between adjacent frames. In this paper, we propose a novel model that produces high-fidelity talking head videos with free control over head pose and expression. Our method leverages both self-supervised learned landmarks and 3D face model-based landmarks to model the motion. We also introduce a novel motion-aware multi-scale feature alignment module to effectively transfer the motion without face distortion. Furthermore, we enhance the smoothness of the synthesized talking head videos with a feature context adaptation and propagation module. We evaluate our model on challenging datasets and demonstrate its state-of-the-art performance. More information is available at

3Mformer: Multi-Order Multi-Mode Transformer for Skeletal Action Recognition

Lei Wang · Piotr Koniusz

Many skeletal action recognition models use GCNs to represent the human body by 3D body joints connected body parts. GCNs aggregate one- or few-hop graph neighbourhoods, and ignore the dependency between not linked body joints. We propose to form hypergraph to model hyper-edges between graph nodes (e.g., third- and fourth-order hyper-edges capture three and four nodes) which help capture higher-order motion patterns of groups of body joints. We split action sequences into temporal blocks, Higher-order Transformer (HoT) produces embeddings of each temporal block based on (i) the body joints, (ii) pairwise links of body joints and (iii) higher-order hyper-edges of skeleton body joints. We combine such HoT embeddings of hyper-edges of orders 1, ..., r by a novel Multi-order Multi-mode Transformer (3Mformer) with two modules whose order can be exchanged to achieve coupled-mode attention on coupled-mode tokens based on ‘channel-temporal block’, ‘order-channel-body joint’, ‘channel-hyper-edge (any order)’ and ‘channel-only’ pairs. The first module, called Multi-order Pooling (MP), additionally learns weighted aggregation along the hyper-edge mode, whereas the second module, Temporal block Pooling (TP), aggregates along the temporal block mode. Our end-to-end trainable network yields state-of-the-art results compared to GCN-, transformer- and hypergraph-based counterparts.

UDE: A Unified Driving Engine for Human Motion Generation

Zixiang Zhou · Baoyuan Wang

Generating controllable and editable human motion sequences is a key challenge in 3D Avatar generation. It has been labor-intensive to generate and animate human motion for a long time until learning-based approaches have been developed and applied recently. However, these approaches are still task-specific or modality-specific. In this paper, we propose “UDE”, the first unified driving engine that enables generating human motion sequences from natural language or audio sequences (see Fig. 1). Specifically, UDE consists of the following key components: 1) a motion quantization module based on VQVAE that represents continuous motion sequence as discrete latent code, 2) a modality-agnostic transformer encoder that learns to map modality-aware driving signals to a joint space, and 3) a unified token transformer (GPT-like) network to predict the quantized latent code index in an auto-regressive manner. 4) a diffusion motion decoder that takes as input the motion tokens and decodes them into motion sequences with high diversity. We evaluate our method on HumanML3D and AIST++ benchmarks, and the experiment results demonstrate our method achieves state-of-the-art performance.

Award Candidate
Data-Driven Feature Tracking for Event Cameras

Nico Messikommer · Carter Fang · Mathias Gehrig · Davide Scaramuzza

Because of their high temporal resolution, increased resilience to motion blur, and very sparse output, event cameras have been shown to be ideal for low-latency and low-bandwidth feature tracking, even in challenging scenarios. Existing feature tracking methods for event cameras are either handcrafted or derived from first principles but require extensive parameter tuning, are sensitive to noise, and do not generalize to different scenarios due to unmodeled effects. To tackle these deficiencies, we introduce the first data-driven feature tracker for event cameras, which leverages low-latency events to track features detected in a grayscale frame. We achieve robust performance via a novel frame attention module, which shares information across feature tracks. By directly transferring zero-shot from synthetic to real data, our data-driven tracker outperforms existing approaches in relative feature age by up to 120% while also achieving the lowest latency. This performance gap is further increased to 130% by adapting our tracker to real data with a novel self-supervision strategy.

MoStGAN-V: Video Generation With Temporal Motion Styles

Xiaoqian Shen · Xiang Li · Mohamed Elhoseiny

Video generation remains a challenging task due to spatiotemporal complexity and the requirement of synthesizing diverse motions with temporal consistency. Previous works attempt to generate videos in arbitrary lengths either in an autoregressive manner or regarding time as a continuous signal. However, they struggle to synthesize detailed and diverse motions with temporal coherence and tend to generate repetitive scenes after a few time steps. In this work, we argue that a single time-agnostic latent vector of style-based generator is insufficient to model various and temporally-consistent motions. Hence, we introduce additional time-dependent motion styles to model diverse motion patterns. In addition, a Motion Style Attention modulation mechanism, dubbed as MoStAtt, is proposed to augment frames with vivid dynamics for each specific scale (i.e., layer), which assigns attention score for each motion style w.r.t deconvolution filter weights in the target synthesis layer and softly attends different motion styles for weight modulation. Experimental results show our model achieves state-of-the-art performance on four unconditional 256^2 video synthesis benchmarks trained with only 3 frames per clip and produces better qualitative results with respect to dynamic motions. Code and videos have been made available at

Two-Stage Co-Segmentation Network Based on Discriminative Representation for Recovering Human Mesh From Videos

Boyang Zhang · Kehua Ma · Suping Wu · Zhixiang Yuan

Recovering 3D human mesh from videos has recently made significant progress. However, most of the existing methods focus on the temporal consistency of videos, while ignoring the spatial representation in complex scenes, thus failing to recover a reasonable and smooth human mesh sequence under extreme illumination and chaotic backgrounds.To alleviate this problem, we propose a two-stage co-segmentation network based on discriminative representation for recovering human body meshes from videos. Specifically, the first stage of the network segments the video spatial domain to spotlight spatially fine-grained information, and then learns and enhances the intra-frame discriminative representation through a dual-excitation mechanism and a frequency domain enhancement module, while suppressing irrelevant information (e.g., background). The second stage focuses on temporal context by segmenting the video temporal domain, and models inter-frame discriminative representation via a dynamic integration strategy.Further, to efficiently generate reasonable human discriminative actions, we carefully elaborate a landmark anchor area loss to constrain the variation of the human motion area. Extensive experimental results on large publicly available datasets indicate the superiority in comparison with most state-of-the-art. Code will be made public.

Joint Appearance and Motion Learning for Efficient Rolling Shutter Correction

Bin Fan · Yuxin Mao · Mochu Xiang · Zhexiong Wan · Qi Liu

Rolling shutter correction (RSC) is becoming increasingly popular for RS cameras that are widely used in commercial and industrial applications. Despite the promising performance, existing RSC methods typically employ a two-stage network structure that ignores intrinsic information interactions and hinders fast inference. In this paper, we propose a single-stage encoder-decoder-based network, named JAMNet, for efficient RSC. It first extracts pyramid features from consecutive RS inputs, and then simultaneously refines the two complementary information (i.e., global shutter appearance and undistortion motion field) to achieve mutual promotion in a joint learning decoder. To inject sufficient motion cues for guiding joint learning, we introduce a transformer-based motion embedding module and propose to pass hidden states across pyramid levels. Moreover, we present a new data augmentation strategy “vertical flip + inverse order” to release the potential of the RSC datasets. Experiments on various benchmarks show that our approach surpasses the state-of-the-art methods by a large margin, especially with a 4.7 dB PSNR leap on real-world RSC. Code is available at

Extracting Motion and Appearance via Inter-Frame Attention for Efficient Video Frame Interpolation

Guozhen Zhang · Yuhan Zhu · Haonan Wang · Youxin Chen · Gangshan Wu · Limin Wang

Effectively extracting inter-frame motion and appearance information is important for video frame interpolation (VFI). Previous works either extract both types of information in a mixed way or devise separate modules for each type of information, which lead to representation ambiguity and low efficiency. In this paper, we propose a new module to explicitly extract motion and appearance information via a unified operation. Specifically, we rethink the information process in inter-frame attention and reuse its attention map for both appearance feature enhancement and motion information extraction. Furthermore, for efficient VFI, our proposed module could be seamlessly integrated into a hybrid CNN and Transformer architecture. This hybrid pipeline can alleviate the computational complexity of inter-frame attention as well as preserve detailed low-level structure information. Experimental results demonstrate that, for both fixed- and arbitrary-timestep interpolation, our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on various datasets. Meanwhile, our approach enjoys a lighter computation overhead over models with close performance. The source code and models are available at

Deep Stereo Video Inpainting

Zhiliang Wu · Changchang Sun · Hanyu Xuan · Yan Yan

Stereo video inpainting aims to fill the missing regions on the left and right views of the stereo video with plausible content simultaneously. Compared with the single video inpainting that has achieved promising results using deep convolutional neural networks, inpainting the missing regions of stereo video has not been thoroughly explored. In essence, apart from the spatial and temporal consistency that single video inpainting needs to achieve, another key challenge for stereo video inpainting is to maintain the stereo consistency between left and right views and hence alleviate the 3D fatigue for viewers. In this paper, we propose a novel deep stereo video inpainting network named SVINet, which is the first attempt for stereo video inpainting task utilizing deep convolutional neural networks. SVINet first utilizes a self-supervised flow-guided deformable temporal alignment module to align the features on the left and right view branches, respectively. Then, the aligned features are fed into a shared adaptive feature aggregation module to generate missing contents of their respective branches. Finally, the parallax attention module (PAM) that uses the cross-view information to consider the significant stereo correlation is introduced to fuse the completed features of left and right views. Furthermore, we develop a stereo consistency loss to regularize the trained parameters, so that our model is able to yield high-quality stereo video inpainting results with better stereo consistency. Experimental results demonstrate that our SVINet outperforms state-of-the-art single video inpainting models.

Burstormer: Burst Image Restoration and Enhancement Transformer

Akshay Dudhane · Syed Waqas Zamir · Salman Khan · Fahad Shahbaz Khan · Ming-Hsuan Yang

On a shutter press, modern handheld cameras capture multiple images in rapid succession and merge them to generate a single image. However, individual frames in a burst are misaligned due to inevitable motions and contain multiple degradations. The challenge is to properly align the successive image shots and merge their complimentary information to achieve high-quality outputs. Towards this direction, we propose Burstormer: a novel transformer-based architecture for burst image restoration and enhancement. In comparison to existing works, our approach exploits multi-scale local and non-local features to achieve improved alignment and feature fusion. Our key idea is to enable inter-frame communication in the burst neighborhoods for information aggregation and progressive fusion while modeling the burst-wide context. However, the input burst frames need to be properly aligned before fusing their information. Therefore, we propose an enhanced deformable alignment module for aligning burst features with regards to the reference frame. Unlike existing methods, the proposed alignment module not only aligns burst features but also exchanges feature information and maintains focused communication with the reference frame through the proposed reference-based feature enrichment mechanism, which facilitates handling complex motions. After multi-level alignment and enrichment, we re-emphasize on inter-frame communication within burst using a cyclic burst sampling module. Finally, the inter-frame information is aggregated using the proposed burst feature fusion module followed by progressive upsampling. Our Burstormer outperforms state-of-the-art methods on burst super-resolution, burst denoising and burst low-light enhancement. Our codes and pre-trained models are available at

Blur Interpolation Transformer for Real-World Motion From Blur

Zhihang Zhong · Mingdeng Cao · Xiang Ji · Yinqiang Zheng · Imari Sato

This paper studies the challenging problem of recovering motion from blur, also known as joint deblurring and interpolation or blur temporal super-resolution. The challenges are twofold: 1) the current methods still leave considerable room for improvement in terms of visual quality even on the synthetic dataset, and 2) poor generalization to real-world data. To this end, we propose a blur interpolation transformer (BiT) to effectively unravel the underlying temporal correlation encoded in blur. Based on multi-scale residual Swin transformer blocks, we introduce dual-end temporal supervision and temporally symmetric ensembling strategies to generate effective features for time-varying motion rendering. In addition, we design a hybrid camera system to collect the first real-world dataset of one-to-many blur-sharp video pairs. Experimental results show that BiT has a significant gain over the state-of-the-art methods on the public dataset Adobe240. Besides, the proposed real-world dataset effectively helps the model generalize well to real blurry scenarios. Code and data are available at

HDR Imaging With Spatially Varying Signal-to-Noise Ratios

Yiheng Chi · Xingguang Zhang · Stanley H. Chan

While today’s high dynamic range (HDR) image fusion algorithms are capable of blending multiple exposures, the acquisition is often controlled so that the dynamic range within one exposure is narrow. For HDR imaging in photon-limited situations, the dynamic range can be enormous and the noise within one exposure is spatially varying. Existing image denoising algorithms and HDR fusion algorithms both fail to handle this situation, leading to severe limitations in low-light HDR imaging. This paper presents two contributions. Firstly, we identify the source of the problem. We find that the issue is associated with the co-existence of (1) spatially varying signal-to-noise ratio, especially the excessive noise due to very dark regions, and (2) a wide luminance range within each exposure. We show that while the issue can be handled by a bank of denoisers, the complexity is high. Secondly, we propose a new method called the spatially varying high dynamic range (SV-HDR) fusion network to simultaneously denoise and fuse images. We introduce a new exposure-shared block within our custom-designed multi-scale transformer framework. In a variety of testing conditions, the performance of the proposed SV-HDR is better than the existing methods.

Light Source Separation and Intrinsic Image Decomposition Under AC Illumination

Yusaku Yoshida · Ryo Kawahara · Takahiro Okabe

Artificial light sources are often powered by an electric grid, and then their intensities rapidly oscillate in response to the grid’s alternating current (AC). Interestingly, the flickers of scene radiance values due to AC illumination are useful for extracting rich information on a scene of interest. In this paper, we show that the flickers due to AC illumination is useful for intrinsic image decomposition (IID). Our proposed method conducts the light source separation (LSS) followed by the IID under AC illumination. In particular, we reveal the ambiguity in the blind LSS via matrix factorization and the ambiguity in the IID assuming the Lambert model, and then show why and how those ambiguities can be resolved. We experimentally confirmed that our method can recover the colors of the light sources, the diffuse reflectance values, and the diffuse and specular intensities (shadings) under each of the light sources, and that the IID under AC illumination is effective for application to auto white balancing.

Physics-Guided ISO-Dependent Sensor Noise Modeling for Extreme Low-Light Photography

Yue Cao · Ming Liu · Shuai Liu · Xiaotao Wang · Lei Lei · Wangmeng Zuo

Although deep neural networks have achieved astonishing performance in many vision tasks, existing learning-based methods are far inferior to the physical model-based solutions in extreme low-light sensor noise modeling. To tap the potential of learning-based sensor noise modeling, we investigate the noise formation in a typical imaging process and propose a novel physics-guided ISO-dependent sensor noise modeling approach. Specifically, we build a normalizing flow-based framework to represent the complex noise characteristics of CMOS camera sensors. Each component of the noise model is dedicated to a particular kind of noise under the guidance of physical models. Moreover, we take into consideration of the ISO dependence in the noise model, which is not completely considered by the existing learning-based methods. For training the proposed noise model, a new dataset is further collected with paired noisy-clean images, as well as flat-field and bias frames covering a wide range of ISO settings. Compared to existing methods, the proposed noise model benefits from the flexible structure and accurate modeling capabilities, which can help achieve better denoising performance in extreme low-light scenes. The source code and collected dataset will be publicly available.

Neumann Network With Recursive Kernels for Single Image Defocus Deblurring

Yuhui Quan · Zicong Wu · Hui Ji

Single image defocus deblurring (SIDD) refers to recovering an all-in-focus image from a defocused blurry one. It is a challenging recovery task due to the spatially-varying defocus blurring effects with significant size variation. Motivated by the strong correlation among defocus kernels of different sizes and the blob-type structure of defocus kernels, we propose a learnable recursive kernel representation (RKR) for defocus kernels that expresses a defocus kernel by a linear combination of recursive, separable and positive atom kernels, leading to a compact yet effective and physics-encoded parametrization of the spatially-varying defocus blurring process. Afterwards, a physics-driven and efficient deep model with a cross-scale fusion structure is presented for SIDD, with inspirations from the truncated Neumann series for approximating the matrix inversion of the RKR-based blurring operator. In addition, a reblurring loss is proposed to regularize the RKR learning. Extensive experiments show that, our proposed approach significantly outperforms existing ones, with a model size comparable to that of the top methods.

UMat: Uncertainty-Aware Single Image High Resolution Material Capture

Carlos Rodriguez-Pardo · Henar Domínguez-Elvira · David Pascual-Hernández · Elena Garces

We propose a learning-based method to recover normals, specularity, and roughness from a single diffuse image of a material, using microgeometry appearance as our primary cue. Previous methods that work on single images tend to produce over-smooth outputs with artifacts, operate at limited resolution, or train one model per class with little room for generalization. In contrast, in this work, we propose a novel capture approach that leverages a generative network with attention and a U-Net discriminator, which shows outstanding performance integrating global information at reduced computational complexity. We showcase the performance of our method with a real dataset of digitized textile materials and show that a commodity flatbed scanner can produce the type of diffuse illumination required as input to our method. Additionally, because the problem might be ill-posed --more than a single diffuse image might be needed to disambiguate the specular reflection-- or because the training dataset is not representative enough of the real distribution, we propose a novel framework to quantify the model’s confidence about its prediction at test time. Our method is the first one to deal with the problem of modeling uncertainty in material digitization, increasing the trustworthiness of the process and enabling more intelligent strategies for dataset creation, as we demonstrate with an active learning experiment.

SMAE: Few-Shot Learning for HDR Deghosting With Saturation-Aware Masked Autoencoders

Qingsen Yan · Song Zhang · Weiye Chen · Hao Tang · Yu Zhu · Jinqiu Sun · Luc Van Gool · Yanning Zhang

Generating a high-quality High Dynamic Range (HDR) image from dynamic scenes has recently been extensively studied by exploiting Deep Neural Networks (DNNs). Most DNNs-based methods require a large amount of training data with ground truth, requiring tedious and time-consuming work. Few-shot HDR imaging aims to generate satisfactory images with limited data. However, it is difficult for modern DNNs to avoid overfitting when trained on only a few images. In this work, we propose a novel semi-supervised approach to realize few-shot HDR imaging via two stages of training, called SSHDR. Unlikely previous methods, directly recovering content and removing ghosts simultaneously, which is hard to achieve optimum, we first generate content of saturated regions with a self-supervised mechanism and then address ghosts via an iterative semi-supervised learning framework. Concretely, considering that saturated regions can be regarded as masking Low Dynamic Range (LDR) input regions, we design a Saturated Mask AutoEncoder (SMAE) to learn a robust feature representation and reconstruct a non-saturated HDR image. We also propose an adaptive pseudo-label selection strategy to pick high-quality HDR pseudo-labels in the second stage to avoid the effect of mislabeled samples. Experiments demonstrate that SSHDR outperforms state-of-the-art methods quantitatively and qualitatively within and across different datasets, achieving appealing HDR visualization with few labeled samples.

Curricular Contrastive Regularization for Physics-Aware Single Image Dehazing

Yu Zheng · Jiahui Zhan · Shengfeng He · Junyu Dong · Yong Du

Considering the ill-posed nature, contrastive regularization has been developed for single image dehazing, introducing the information from negative images as a lower bound. However, the contrastive samples are nonconsensual, as the negatives are usually represented distantly from the clear (i.e., positive) image, leaving the solution space still under-constricted. Moreover, the interpretability of deep dehazing models is underexplored towards the physics of the hazing process. In this paper, we propose a novel curricular contrastive regularization targeted at a consensual contrastive space as opposed to a non-consensual one. Our negatives, which provide better lower-bound constraints, can be assembled from 1) the hazy image, and 2) corresponding restorations by other existing methods. Further, due to the different similarities between the embeddings of the clear image and negatives, the learning difficulty of the multiple components is intrinsically imbalanced. To tackle this issue, we customize a curriculum learning strategy to reweight the importance of different negatives. In addition, to improve the interpretability in the feature space, we build a physics-aware dual-branch unit according to the atmospheric scattering model. With the unit, as well as curricular contrastive regularization, we establish our dehazing network, named C2PNet. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our C2PNet significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods, with extreme PSNR boosts of 3.94dB and 1.50dB, respectively, on SOTS-indoor and SOTS-outdoor datasets. Code is available at

Patch-Craft Self-Supervised Training for Correlated Image Denoising

Gregory Vaksman · Michael Elad

Supervised neural networks are known to achieve excellent results in various image restoration tasks. However, such training requires datasets composed of pairs of corrupted images and their corresponding ground truth targets. Unfortunately, such data is not available in many applications. For the task of image denoising in which the noise statistics is unknown, several self-supervised training methods have been proposed for overcoming this difficulty. Some of these require knowledge of the noise model, while others assume that the contaminating noise is uncorrelated, both assumptions are too limiting for many practical needs. This work proposes a novel self-supervised training technique suitable for the removal of unknown correlated noise. The proposed approach neither requires knowledge of the noise model nor access to ground truth targets. The input to our algorithm consists of easily captured bursts of noisy shots. Our algorithm constructs artificial patch-craft images from these bursts by patch matching and stitching, and the obtained crafted images are used as targets for the training. Our method does not require registration of the different images within the burst. We evaluate the proposed framework through extensive experiments with synthetic and real image noise.

Spectral Enhanced Rectangle Transformer for Hyperspectral Image Denoising

Miaoyu Li · Ji Liu · Ying Fu · Yulun Zhang · Dejing Dou

Denoising is a crucial step for hyperspectral image (HSI) applications. Though witnessing the great power of deep learning, existing HSI denoising methods suffer from limitations in capturing the non-local self-similarity. Transformers have shown potential in capturing long-range dependencies, but few attempts have been made with specifically designed Transformer to model the spatial and spectral correlation in HSIs. In this paper, we address these issues by proposing a spectral enhanced rectangle Transformer, driving it to explore the non-local spatial similarity and global spectral low-rank property of HSIs. For the former, we exploit the rectangle self-attention horizontally and vertically to capture the non-local similarity in the spatial domain. For the latter, we design a spectral enhancement module that is capable of extracting global underlying low-rank property of spatial-spectral cubes to suppress noise, while enabling the interactions among non-overlapping spatial rectangles. Extensive experiments have been conducted on both synthetic noisy HSIs and real noisy HSIs, showing the effectiveness of our proposed method in terms of both objective metric and subjective visual quality. The code is available at

All-in-One Image Restoration for Unknown Degradations Using Adaptive Discriminative Filters for Specific Degradations

Dongwon Park · Byung Hyun Lee · Se Young Chun

Image restorations for single degradations have been widely studied, demonstrating excellent performance for each degradation, but can not reflect unpredictable realistic environments with unknown multiple degradations, which may change over time. To mitigate this issue, image restorations for known and unknown multiple degradations have recently been investigated, showing promising results, but require large networks or have sub-optimal architectures for potential interference among different degradations. Here, inspired by the filter attribution integrated gradients (FAIG), we propose an adaptive discriminative filter-based model for specific degradations (ADMS) to restore images with unknown degradations. Our method allows the network to contain degradation-dedicated filters only for about 3% of all network parameters per each degradation and to apply them adaptively via degradation classification (DC) to explicitly disentangle the network for multiple degradations. Our proposed method has demonstrated its effectiveness in comparison studies and achieved state-of-the-art performance in all-in-one image restoration benchmark datasets of both Rain-Noise-Blur and Rain-Snow-Haze.

Ingredient-Oriented Multi-Degradation Learning for Image Restoration

Jinghao Zhang · Jie Huang · Mingde Yao · Zizheng Yang · Hu Yu · Man Zhou · Feng Zhao

Learning to leverage the relationship among diverse image restoration tasks is quite beneficial for unraveling the intrinsic ingredients behind the degradation. Recent years have witnessed the flourish of various All-in-one methods, which handle multiple image degradations within a single model. In practice, however, few attempts have been made to excavate task correlations in that exploring the underlying fundamental ingredients of various image degradations, resulting in poor scalability as more tasks are involved. In this paper, we propose a novel perspective to delve into the degradation via an ingredients-oriented rather than previous task-oriented manner for scalable learning. Specifically, our method, named Ingredients-oriented Degradation Reformulation framework (IDR), consists of two stages, namely task-oriented knowledge collection and ingredients-oriented knowledge integration. In the first stage, we conduct ad hoc operations on different degradations according to the underlying physics principles, and establish the corresponding prior hubs for each type of degradation. While the second stage progressively reformulates the preceding task-oriented hubs into single ingredients-oriented hub via learnable Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and employs a dynamic routing mechanism for probabilistic unknown degradation removal. Extensive experiments on various image restoration tasks demonstrate the effectiveness and scalability of our method. More importantly, our IDR exhibits the favorable generalization ability to unknown downstream tasks.

CR-FIQA: Face Image Quality Assessment by Learning Sample Relative Classifiability

Fadi Boutros · Meiling Fang · Marcel Klemt · Biying Fu · Naser Damer

Face image quality assessment (FIQA) estimates the utility of the captured image in achieving reliable and accurate recognition performance. This work proposes a novel FIQA method, CR-FIQA, that estimates the face image quality of a sample by learning to predict its relative classifiability. This classifiability is measured based on the allocation of the training sample feature representation in angular space with respect to its class center and the nearest negative class center. We experimentally illustrate the correlation between the face image quality and the sample relative classifiability. As such property is only observable for the training dataset, we propose to learn this property by probing internal network observations during the training process and utilizing it to predict the quality of unseen samples. Through extensive evaluation experiments on eight benchmarks and four face recognition models, we demonstrate the superiority of our proposed CR-FIQA over state-of-the-art (SOTA) FIQA algorithms.

Re-IQA: Unsupervised Learning for Image Quality Assessment in the Wild

Avinab Saha · Sandeep Mishra · Alan C. Bovik

Automatic Perceptual Image Quality Assessment is a challenging problem that impacts billions of internet, and social media users daily. To advance research in this field, we propose a Mixture of Experts approach to train two separate encoders to learn high-level content and low-level image quality features in an unsupervised setting. The unique novelty of our approach is its ability to generate low-level representations of image quality that are complementary to high-level features representing image content. We refer to the framework used to train the two encoders as Re-IQA. For Image Quality Assessment in the Wild, we deploy the complementary low and high-level image representations obtained from the Re-IQA framework to train a linear regression model, which is used to map the image representations to the ground truth quality scores, refer Figure 1. Our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on multiple large-scale image quality assessment databases containing both real and synthetic distortions, demonstrating how deep neural networks can be trained in an unsupervised setting to produce perceptually relevant representations. We conclude from our experiments that the low and high-level features obtained are indeed complementary and positively impact the performance of the linear regressor. A public release of all the codes associated with this work will be made available on GitHub.

Toward Accurate Post-Training Quantization for Image Super Resolution

Zhijun Tu · Jie Hu · Hanting Chen · Yunhe Wang

Model quantization is a crucial step for deploying super resolution (SR) networks on mobile devices. However, existing works focus on quantization-aware training, which requires complete dataset and expensive computational overhead. In this paper, we study post-training quantization(PTQ) for image super resolution using only a few unlabeled calibration images. As the SR model aims to maintain the texture and color information of input images, the distribution of activations are long-tailed, asymmetric and highly dynamic compared with classification models. To this end, we introduce the density-based dual clipping to cut off the outliers based on analyzing the asymmetric bounds of activations. Moreover, we present a novel pixel aware calibration method with the supervision of the full-precision model to accommodate the highly dynamic range of different samples. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method significantly outperforms existing PTQ algorithms on various models and datasets. For instance, we get a 2.091 dB increase on Urban100 benchmark when quantizing EDSR×4 to 4-bit with 100 unlabeled images. Our code is available at both and

Learning Steerable Function for Efficient Image Resampling

Jiacheng Li · Chang Chen · Wei Huang · Zhiqiang Lang · Fenglong Song · Youliang Yan · Zhiwei Xiong

Image resampling is a basic technique that is widely employed in daily applications. Existing deep neural networks (DNNs) have made impressive progress in resampling performance. Yet these methods are still not the perfect substitute for interpolation, due to the issues of efficiency and continuous resampling. In this work, we propose a novel method of Learning Resampling Function (termed LeRF), which takes advantage of both the structural priors learned by DNNs and the locally continuous assumption of interpolation methods. Specifically, LeRF assigns spatially-varying steerable resampling functions to input image pixels and learns to predict the hyper-parameters that determine the orientations of these resampling functions with a neural network. To achieve highly efficient inference, we adopt look-up tables (LUTs) to accelerate the inference of the learned neural network. Furthermore, we design a directional ensemble strategy and edge-sensitive indexing patterns to better capture local structures. Extensive experiments show that our method runs as fast as interpolation, generalizes well to arbitrary transformations, and outperforms interpolation significantly, e.g., up to 3dB PSNR gain over bicubic for ×2 upsampling on Manga109.

ABCD: Arbitrary Bitwise Coefficient for De-Quantization

Woo Kyoung Han · Byeonghun Lee · Sang Hyun Park · Kyong Hwan Jin

Modern displays and contents support more than 8bits image and video. However, bit-starving situations such as compression codecs make low bit-depth (LBD) images (<8bits), occurring banding and blurry artifacts. Previous bit depth expansion (BDE) methods still produce unsatisfactory high bit-depth (HBD) images. To this end, we propose an implicit neural function with a bit query to recover de-quantized images from arbitrarily quantized inputs. We develop a phasor estimator to exploit the information of the nearest pixels. Our method shows superior performance against prior BDE methods on natural and animation images. We also demonstrate our model on YouTube UGC datasets for de-banding. Our source code is available at

Efficient Frequency Domain-Based Transformers for High-Quality Image Deblurring

Lingshun Kong · Jiangxin Dong · Jianjun Ge · Mingqiang Li · Jinshan Pan

We present an effective and efficient method that explores the properties of Transformers in the frequency domain for high-quality image deblurring. Our method is motivated by the convolution theorem that the correlation or convolution of two signals in the spatial domain is equivalent to an element-wise product of them in the frequency domain. This inspires us to develop an efficient frequency domain-based self-attention solver (FSAS) to estimate the scaled dot-product attention by an element-wise product operation instead of the matrix multiplication in the spatial domain. In addition, we note that simply using the naive feed-forward network (FFN) in Transformers does not generate good deblurred results. To overcome this problem, we propose a simple yet effective discriminative frequency domain-based FFN (DFFN), where we introduce a gated mechanism in the FFN based on the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) compression algorithm to discriminatively determine which low- and high-frequency information of the features should be preserved for latent clear image restoration. We formulate the proposed FSAS and DFFN into an asymmetrical network based on an encoder and decoder architecture, where the FSAS is only used in the decoder module for better image deblurring. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs favorably against the state-of-the-art approaches.

Learning a Sparse Transformer Network for Effective Image Deraining

Xiang Chen · Hao Li · Mingqiang Li · Jinshan Pan

Transformers-based methods have achieved significant performance in image deraining as they can model the non-local information which is vital for high-quality image reconstruction. In this paper, we find that most existing Transformers usually use all similarities of the tokens from the query-key pairs for the feature aggregation. However, if the tokens from the query are different from those of the key, the self-attention values estimated from these tokens also involve in feature aggregation, which accordingly interferes with the clear image restoration. To overcome this problem, we propose an effective DeRaining network, Sparse Transformer (DRSformer) that can adaptively keep the most useful self-attention values for feature aggregation so that the aggregated features better facilitate high-quality image reconstruction. Specifically, we develop a learnable top-k selection operator to adaptively retain the most crucial attention scores from the keys for each query for better feature aggregation. Simultaneously, as the naive feed-forward network in Transformers does not model the multi-scale information that is important for latent clear image restoration, we develop an effective mixed-scale feed-forward network to generate better features for image deraining. To learn an enriched set of hybrid features, which combines local context from CNN operators, we equip our model with mixture of experts feature compensator to present a cooperation refinement deraining scheme. Extensive experimental results on the commonly used benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed method achieves favorable performance against state-of-the-art approaches. The source code and trained models are available at

CDDFuse: Correlation-Driven Dual-Branch Feature Decomposition for Multi-Modality Image Fusion

Zixiang Zhao · Haowen Bai · Jiangshe Zhang · Yulun Zhang · Shuang Xu · Zudi Lin · Radu Timofte · Luc Van Gool

Multi-modality (MM) image fusion aims to render fused images that maintain the merits of different modalities, e.g., functional highlight and detailed textures. To tackle the challenge in modeling cross-modality features and decomposing desirable modality-specific and modality-shared features, we propose a novel Correlation-Driven feature Decomposition Fusion (CDDFuse) network. Firstly, CDDFuse uses Restormer blocks to extract cross-modality shallow features. We then introduce a dual-branch Transformer-CNN feature extractor with Lite Transformer (LT) blocks leveraging long-range attention to handle low-frequency global features and Invertible Neural Networks (INN) blocks focusing on extracting high-frequency local information. A correlation-driven loss is further proposed to make the low-frequency features correlated while the high-frequency features uncorrelated based on the embedded information. Then, the LT-based global fusion and INN-based local fusion layers output the fused image. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our CDDFuse achieves promising results in multiple fusion tasks, including infrared-visible image fusion and medical image fusion. We also show that CDDFuse can boost the performance in downstream infrared-visible semantic segmentation and object detection in a unified benchmark. The code is available at

PCT-Net: Full Resolution Image Harmonization Using Pixel-Wise Color Transformations

Julian Jorge Andrade Guerreiro · Mitsuru Nakazawa · Björn Stenger

In this paper, we present PCT-Net, a simple and general image harmonization method that can be easily applied to images at full resolution. The key idea is to learn a parameter network that uses downsampled input images to predict the parameters for pixel-wise color transforms (PCTs) which are applied to each pixel in the full-resolution image. We show that affine color transforms are both efficient and effective, resulting in state-of-the-art harmonization results. Moreover, we explore both CNNs and Transformers as the parameter network and show that Transformers lead to better results. We evaluate the proposed method on the public full-resolution iHarmony4 dataset, which is comprised of four datasets, and show a reduction of the foreground MSE (fMSE) and MSE values by more than 20% and an increase of the PSNR value by 1.4dB while keeping the architecture light-weight. In a user study with 20 people, we show that the method achieves a higher B-T score than two other recent methods.

Semi-Supervised Parametric Real-World Image Harmonization

Ke Wang · Michaël Gharbi · He Zhang · Zhihao Xia · Eli Shechtman

Learning-based image harmonization techniques are usually trained to undo synthetic global transformations, applied to a masked foreground in a single ground truth photo. This simulated data does not model many important appearance mismatches (illumination, object boundaries, etc.) between foreground and background in real composites, leading to models that do not generalize well and cannot model complex local changes. We propose a new semi-supervised training strategy that addresses this problem and lets us learn complex local appearance harmonization from unpaired real composites, where foreground and background come from different images. Our model is fully parametric. It uses RGB curves to correct the global colors and tone and a shading map to model local variations. Our approach outperforms previous work on established benchmarks and real composites, as shown in a user study, and processes high-resolution images interactively. The code and project page is available at

Towards Robust Tampered Text Detection in Document Image: New Dataset and New Solution

Chenfan Qu · Chongyu Liu · Yuliang Liu · Xinhong Chen · Dezhi Peng · Fengjun Guo · Lianwen Jin

Recently, tampered text detection in document image has attracted increasingly attention due to its essential role on information security. However, detecting visually consistent tampered text in photographed document images is still a main challenge. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to capture more fine-grained clues in complex scenarios for tampered text detection, termed as Document Tampering Detector (DTD), which consists of a Frequency Perception Head (FPH) to compensate the deficiencies caused by the inconspicuous visual features, and a Multi-view Iterative Decoder (MID) for fully utilizing the information of features in different scales. In addition, we design a new training paradigm, termed as Curriculum Learning for Tampering Detection (CLTD), which can address the confusion during the training procedure and thus to improve the robustness for image compression and the ability to generalize. To further facilitate the tampered text detection in document images, we construct a large-scale document image dataset, termed as DocTamper, which contains 170,000 document images of various types. Experiments demonstrate that our proposed DTD outperforms previous state-of-the-art by 9.2%, 26.3% and 12.3% in terms of F-measure on the DocTamper testing set, and the cross-domain testing sets of DocTamper-FCD and DocTamper-SCD, respectively. Codes and dataset will be available at

QuantArt: Quantizing Image Style Transfer Towards High Visual Fidelity

Siyu Huang · Jie An · Donglai Wei · Jiebo Luo · Hanspeter Pfister

The mechanism of existing style transfer algorithms is by minimizing a hybrid loss function to push the generated image toward high similarities in both content and style. However, this type of approach cannot guarantee visual fidelity, i.e., the generated artworks should be indistinguishable from real ones. In this paper, we devise a new style transfer framework called QuantArt for high visual-fidelity stylization. QuantArt pushes the latent representation of the generated artwork toward the centroids of the real artwork distribution with vector quantization. By fusing the quantized and continuous latent representations, QuantArt allows flexible control over the generated artworks in terms of content preservation, style similarity, and visual fidelity. Experiments on various style transfer settings show that our QuantArt framework achieves significantly higher visual fidelity compared with the existing style transfer methods.

Deep Curvilinear Editing: Commutative and Nonlinear Image Manipulation for Pretrained Deep Generative Model

Takehiro Aoshima · Takashi Matsubara

Semantic editing of images is the fundamental goal of computer vision. Although deep learning methods, such as generative adversarial networks (GANs), are capable of producing high-quality images, they often do not have an inherent way of editing generated images semantically. Recent studies have investigated a way of manipulating the latent variable to determine the images to be generated. However, methods that assume linear semantic arithmetic have certain limitations in terms of the quality of image editing, whereas methods that discover nonlinear semantic pathways provide non-commutative editing, which is inconsistent when applied in different orders. This study proposes a novel method called deep curvilinear editing (DeCurvEd) to determine semantic commuting vector fields on the latent space. We theoretically demonstrate that owing to commutativity, the editing of multiple attributes depends only on the quantities and not on the order. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate that compared to previous methods, the nonlinear and commutative nature of DeCurvEd provides higher-quality editing.

Person Image Synthesis via Denoising Diffusion Model

Ankan Kumar Bhunia · Salman Khan · Hisham Cholakkal · Rao Muhammad Anwer · Jorma Laaksonen · Mubarak Shah · Fahad Shahbaz Khan

The pose-guided person image generation task requires synthesizing photorealistic images of humans in arbitrary poses. The existing approaches use generative adversarial networks that do not necessarily maintain realistic textures or need dense correspondences that struggle to handle complex deformations and severe occlusions. In this work, we show how denoising diffusion models can be applied for high-fidelity person image synthesis with strong sample diversity and enhanced mode coverage of the learnt data distribution. Our proposed Person Image Diffusion Model (PIDM) disintegrates the complex transfer problem into a series of simpler forward-backward denoising steps. This helps in learning plausible source-to-target transformation trajectories that result in faithful textures and undistorted appearance details. We introduce a ‘texture diffusion module’ based on cross-attention to accurately model the correspondences between appearance and pose information available in source and target images. Further, we propose ‘disentangled classifier-free guidance’ to ensure close resemblance between the conditional inputs and the synthesized output in terms of both pose and appearance information. Our extensive results on two large-scale benchmarks and a user study demonstrate the photorealism of our proposed approach under challenging scenarios. We also show how our generated images can help in downstream tasks.

Disentangling Writer and Character Styles for Handwriting Generation

Gang Dai · Yifan Zhang · Qingfeng Wang · Qing Du · Zhuliang Yu · Zhuoman Liu · Shuangping Huang

Training machines to synthesize diverse handwritings is an intriguing task. Recently, RNN-based methods have been proposed to generate stylized online Chinese characters. However, these methods mainly focus on capturing a person’s overall writing style, neglecting subtle style inconsistencies between characters written by the same person. For example, while a person’s handwriting typically exhibits general uniformity (e.g., glyph slant and aspect ratios), there are still small style variations in finer details (e.g., stroke length and curvature) of characters. In light of this, we propose to disentangle the style representations at both writer and character levels from individual handwritings to synthesize realistic stylized online handwritten characters. Specifically, we present the style-disentangled Transformer (SDT), which employs two complementary contrastive objectives to extract the style commonalities of reference samples and capture the detailed style patterns of each sample, respectively. Extensive experiments on various language scripts demonstrate the effectiveness of SDT. Notably, our empirical findings reveal that the two learned style representations provide information at different frequency magnitudes, underscoring the importance of separate style extraction. Our source code is public at:

NoisyTwins: Class-Consistent and Diverse Image Generation Through StyleGANs

Harsh Rangwani · Lavish Bansal · Kartik Sharma · Tejan Karmali · Varun Jampani · R. Venkatesh Babu

StyleGANs are at the forefront of controllable image generation as they produce a latent space that is semantically disentangled, making it suitable for image editing and manipulation. However, the performance of StyleGANs severely degrades when trained via class-conditioning on large-scale long-tailed datasets. We find that one reason for degradation is the collapse of latents for each class in the W latent space. With NoisyTwins, we first introduce an effective and inexpensive augmentation strategy for class embeddings, which then decorrelates the latents based on self-supervision in the W space. This decorrelation mitigates collapse, ensuring that our method preserves intra-class diversity with class-consistency in image generation. We show the effectiveness of our approach on large-scale real-world long-tailed datasets of ImageNet-LT and iNaturalist 2019, where our method outperforms other methods by ~ 19% on FID, establishing a new state-of-the-art.

High-Fidelity Guided Image Synthesis With Latent Diffusion Models

Jaskirat Singh · Stephen Gould · Liang Zheng

Controllable image synthesis with user scribbles has gained huge public interest with the recent advent of text-conditioned latent diffusion models. The user scribbles control the color composition while the text prompt provides control over the overall image semantics. However, we find that prior works suffer from an intrinsic domain shift problem wherein the generated outputs often lack details and resemble simplistic representations of the target domain. In this paper, we propose a novel guided image synthesis framework, which addresses this problem by modeling the output image as the solution of a constrained optimization problem. We show that while computing an exact solution to the optimization is infeasible, an approximation of the same can be achieved while just requiring a single pass of the reverse diffusion process. Additionally, we show that by simply defining a cross-attention based correspondence between the input text tokens and the user stroke-painting, the user is also able to control the semantics of different painted regions without requiring any conditional training or finetuning. Human user study results show that the proposed approach outperforms the previous state-of-the-art by over 85.32% on the overall user satisfaction scores. Project page for our paper is available at

Imagic: Text-Based Real Image Editing With Diffusion Models

Bahjat Kawar · Shiran Zada · Oran Lang · Omer Tov · Huiwen Chang · Tali Dekel · Inbar Mosseri · Michal Irani

Text-conditioned image editing has recently attracted considerable interest. However, most methods are currently limited to one of the following: specific editing types (e.g., object overlay, style transfer), synthetically generated images, or requiring multiple input images of a common object. In this paper we demonstrate, for the very first time, the ability to apply complex (e.g., non-rigid) text-based semantic edits to a single real image. For example, we can change the posture and composition of one or multiple objects inside an image, while preserving its original characteristics. Our method can make a standing dog sit down, cause a bird to spread its wings, etc. -- each within its single high-resolution user-provided natural image. Contrary to previous work, our proposed method requires only a single input image and a target text (the desired edit). It operates on real images, and does not require any additional inputs (such as image masks or additional views of the object). Our method, called Imagic, leverages a pre-trained text-to-image diffusion model for this task. It produces a text embedding that aligns with both the input image and the target text, while fine-tuning the diffusion model to capture the image-specific appearance. We demonstrate the quality and versatility of Imagic on numerous inputs from various domains, showcasing a plethora of high quality complex semantic image edits, all within a single unified framework. To better assess performance, we introduce TEdBench, a highly challenging image editing benchmark. We conduct a user study, whose findings show that human raters prefer Imagic to previous leading editing methods on TEdBench.

PosterLayout: A New Benchmark and Approach for Content-Aware Visual-Textual Presentation Layout

Hsiao Yuan Hsu · Xiangteng He · Yuxin Peng · Hao Kong · Qing Zhang

Content-aware visual-textual presentation layout aims at arranging spatial space on the given canvas for pre-defined elements, including text, logo, and underlay, which is a key to automatic template-free creative graphic design. In practical applications, e.g., poster designs, the canvas is originally non-empty, and both inter-element relationships as well as inter-layer relationships should be concerned when generating a proper layout. A few recent works deal with them simultaneously, but they still suffer from poor graphic performance, such as a lack of layout variety or spatial non-alignment. Since content-aware visual-textual presentation layout is a novel task, we first construct a new dataset named PKU PosterLayout, which consists of 9,974 poster-layout pairs and 905 images, i.e., non-empty canvases. It is more challenging and useful for greater layout variety, domain diversity, and content diversity. Then, we propose design sequence formation (DSF) that reorganizes elements in layouts to imitate the design processes of human designers, and a novel CNN-LSTM-based conditional generative adversarial network (GAN) is presented to generate proper layouts. Specifically, the discriminator is design-sequence-aware and will supervise the “design” process of the generator. Experimental results verify the usefulness of the new benchmark and the effectiveness of the proposed approach, which achieves the best performance by generating suitable layouts for diverse canvases. The dataset and the source code are available at

SINE: SINgle Image Editing With Text-to-Image Diffusion Models

Zhixing Zhang · Ligong Han · Arnab Ghosh · Dimitris N. Metaxas · Jian Ren

Recent works on diffusion models have demonstrated a strong capability for conditioning image generation, e.g., text-guided image synthesis. Such success inspires many efforts trying to use large-scale pre-trained diffusion models for tackling a challenging problem--real image editing. Works conducted in this area learn a unique textual token corresponding to several images containing the same object. However, under many circumstances, only one image is available, such as the painting of the Girl with a Pearl Earring. Using existing works on fine-tuning the pre-trained diffusion models with a single image causes severe overfitting issues. The information leakage from the pre-trained diffusion models makes editing can not keep the same content as the given image while creating new features depicted by the language guidance. This work aims to address the problem of single-image editing. We propose a novel model-based guidance built upon the classifier-free guidance so that the knowledge from the model trained on a single image can be distilled into the pre-trained diffusion model, enabling content creation even with one given image. Additionally, we propose a patch-based fine-tuning that can effectively help the model generate images of arbitrary resolution. We provide extensive experiments to validate the design choices of our approach and show promising editing capabilities, including changing style, content addition, and object manipulation.

NULL-Text Inversion for Editing Real Images Using Guided Diffusion Models

Ron Mokady · Amir Hertz · Kfir Aberman · Yael Pritch · Daniel Cohen-Or

Recent large-scale text-guided diffusion models provide powerful image generation capabilities. Currently, a massive effort is given to enable the modification of these images using text only as means to offer intuitive and versatile editing tools. To edit a real image using these state-of-the-art tools, one must first invert the image with a meaningful text prompt into the pretrained model’s domain. In this paper, we introduce an accurate inversion technique and thus facilitate an intuitive text-based modification of the image. Our proposed inversion consists of two key novel components: (i) Pivotal inversion for diffusion models. While current methods aim at mapping random noise samples to a single input image, we use a single pivotal noise vector for each timestamp and optimize around it. We recognize that a direct DDIM inversion is inadequate on its own, but does provide a rather good anchor for our optimization. (ii) NULL-text optimization, where we only modify the unconditional textual embedding that is used for classifier-free guidance, rather than the input text embedding. This allows for keeping both the model weights and the conditional embedding intact and hence enables applying prompt-based editing while avoiding the cumbersome tuning of the model’s weights. Our Null-text inversion, based on the publicly available Stable Diffusion model, is extensively evaluated on a variety of images and various prompt editing, showing high-fidelity editing of real images.

Diffusion Art or Digital Forgery? Investigating Data Replication in Diffusion Models

Gowthami Somepalli · Vasu Singla · Micah Goldblum · Jonas Geiping · Tom Goldstein

Cutting-edge diffusion models produce images with high quality and customizability, enabling them to be used for commercial art and graphic design purposes. But do diffusion models create unique works of art, or are they replicating content directly from their training sets? In this work, we study image retrieval frameworks that enable us to compare generated images with training samples and detect when content has been replicated. Applying our frameworks to diffusion models trained on multiple datasets including Oxford flowers, Celeb-A, ImageNet, and LAION, we discuss how factors such as training set size impact rates of content replication. We also identify cases where diffusion models, including the popular Stable Diffusion model, blatantly copy from their training data.

Parallel Diffusion Models of Operator and Image for Blind Inverse Problems

Hyungjin Chung · Jeongsol Kim · Sehui Kim · Jong Chul Ye

Diffusion model-based inverse problem solvers have demonstrated state-of-the-art performance in cases where the forward operator is known (i.e. non-blind). However, the applicability of the method to blind inverse problems has yet to be explored. In this work, we show that we can indeed solve a family of blind inverse problems by constructing another diffusion prior for the forward operator. Specifically, parallel reverse diffusion guided by gradients from the intermediate stages enables joint optimization of both the forward operator parameters as well as the image, such that both are jointly estimated at the end of the parallel reverse diffusion procedure. We show the efficacy of our method on two representative tasks --- blind deblurring, and imaging through turbulence --- and show that our method yields state-of-the-art performance, while also being flexible to be applicable to general blind inverse problems when we know the functional forms. Code available:

Unite and Conquer: Plug & Play Multi-Modal Synthesis Using Diffusion Models

Nithin Gopalakrishnan Nair · Wele Gedara Chaminda Bandara · Vishal M. Patel

Generating photos satisfying multiple constraints finds broad utility in the content creation industry. A key hurdle to accomplishing this task is the need for paired data consisting of all modalities (i.e., constraints) and their corresponding output. Moreover, existing methods need retraining using paired data across all modalities to introduce a new condition. This paper proposes a solution to this problem based on denoising diffusion probabilistic models (DDPMs). Our motivation for choosing diffusion models over other generative models comes from the flexible internal structure of diffusion models. Since each sampling step in the DDPM follows a Gaussian distribution, we show that there exists a closed-form solution for generating an image given various constraints. Our method can utilize a single diffusion model trained on multiple sub-tasks and improve the combined task through our proposed sampling strategy. We also introduce a novel reliability parameter that allows using different off-the-shelf diffusion models trained across various datasets during sampling time alone to guide it to the desired outcome satisfying multiple constraints. We perform experiments on various standard multimodal tasks to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. More details can be found at:

Collaborative Diffusion for Multi-Modal Face Generation and Editing

Ziqi Huang · Kelvin C.K. Chan · Yuming Jiang · Ziwei Liu

Diffusion models arise as a powerful generative tool recently. Despite the great progress, existing diffusion models mainly focus on uni-modal control, i.e., the diffusion process is driven by only one modality of condition. To further unleash the users’ creativity, it is desirable for the model to be controllable by multiple modalities simultaneously, e.g., generating and editing faces by describing the age (text-driven) while drawing the face shape (mask-driven). In this work, we present Collaborative Diffusion, where pre-trained uni-modal diffusion models collaborate to achieve multi-modal face generation and editing without re-training. Our key insight is that diffusion models driven by different modalities are inherently complementary regarding the latent denoising steps, where bilateral connections can be established upon. Specifically, we propose dynamic diffuser, a meta-network that adaptively hallucinates multi-modal denoising steps by predicting the spatial-temporal influence functions for each pre-trained uni-modal model. Collaborative Diffusion not only collaborates generation capabilities from uni-modal diffusion models, but also integrates multiple uni-modal manipulations to perform multi-modal editing. Extensive qualitative and quantitative experiments demonstrate the superiority of our framework in both image quality and condition consistency.

Diffusion Video Autoencoders: Toward Temporally Consistent Face Video Editing via Disentangled Video Encoding

Gyeongman Kim · Hajin Shim · Hyunsu Kim · Yunjey Choi · Junho Kim · Eunho Yang

Inspired by the impressive performance of recent face image editing methods, several studies have been naturally proposed to extend these methods to the face video editing task. One of the main challenges here is temporal consistency among edited frames, which is still unresolved. To this end, we propose a novel face video editing framework based on diffusion autoencoders that can successfully extract the decomposed features - for the first time as a face video editing model - of identity and motion from a given video. This modeling allows us to edit the video by simply manipulating the temporally invariant feature to the desired direction for the consistency. Another unique strength of our model is that, since our model is based on diffusion models, it can satisfy both reconstruction and edit capabilities at the same time, and is robust to corner cases in wild face videos (e.g. occluded faces) unlike the existing GAN-based methods.

NVTC: Nonlinear Vector Transform Coding

Runsen Feng · Zongyu Guo · Weiping Li · Zhibo Chen

In theory, vector quantization (VQ) is always better than scalar quantization (SQ) in terms of rate-distortion (R-D) performance. Recent state-of-the-art methods for neural image compression are mainly based on nonlinear transform coding (NTC) with uniform scalar quantization, overlooking the benefits of VQ due to its exponentially increased complexity. In this paper, we first investigate on some toy sources, demonstrating that even if modern neural networks considerably enhance the compression performance of SQ with nonlinear transform, there is still an insurmountable chasm between SQ and VQ. Therefore, revolving around VQ, we propose a novel framework for neural image compression named Nonlinear Vector Transform Coding (NVTC). NVTC solves the critical complexity issue of VQ through (1) a multi-stage quantization strategy and (2) nonlinear vector transforms. In addition, we apply entropy-constrained VQ in latent space to adaptively determine the quantization boundaries for joint rate-distortion optimization, which improves the performance both theoretically and experimentally. Compared to previous NTC approaches, NVTC demonstrates superior rate-distortion performance, faster decoding speed, and smaller model size. Our code is available at

Motion Information Propagation for Neural Video Compression

Linfeng Qi · Jiahao Li · Bin Li · Houqiang Li · Yan Lu

In most existing neural video codecs, the information flow therein is uni-directional, where only motion coding provides motion vectors for frame coding. In this paper, we argue that, through information interactions, the synergy between motion coding and frame coding can be achieved. We effectively introduce bi-directional information interactions between motion coding and frame coding via our Motion Information Propagation. When generating the temporal contexts for frame coding, the high-dimension motion feature from the motion decoder serves as motion guidance to mitigate the alignment errors. Meanwhile, besides assisting frame coding at the current time step, the feature from context generation will be propagated as motion condition when coding the subsequent motion latent. Through the cycle of such interactions, feature propagation on motion coding is built, strengthening the capacity of exploiting long-range temporal correlation. In addition, we propose hybrid context generation to exploit the multi-scale context features and provide better motion condition. Experiments show that our method can achieve 12.9% bit rate saving over the previous SOTA neural video codec.

A Dynamic Multi-Scale Voxel Flow Network for Video Prediction

Xiaotao Hu · Zhewei Huang · Ailin Huang · Jun Xu · Shuchang Zhou

The performance of video prediction has been greatly boosted by advanced deep neural networks. However, most of the current methods suffer from large model sizes and require extra inputs, e.g., semantic/depth maps, for promising performance. For efficiency consideration, in this paper, we propose a Dynamic Multi-scale Voxel Flow Network (DMVFN) to achieve better video prediction performance at lower computational costs with only RGB images, than previous methods. The core of our DMVFN is a differentiable routing module that can effectively perceive the motion scales of video frames. Once trained, our DMVFN selects adaptive sub-networks for different inputs at the inference stage. Experiments on several benchmarks demonstrate that our DMVFN is an order of magnitude faster than Deep Voxel Flow and surpasses the state-of-the-art iterative-based OPT on generated image quality. Our code and demo are available at

Towards Scalable Neural Representation for Diverse Videos

Bo He · Xitong Yang · Hanyu Wang · Zuxuan Wu · Hao Chen · Shuaiyi Huang · Yixuan Ren · Ser-Nam Lim · Abhinav Shrivastava

Implicit neural representations (INR) have gained increasing attention in representing 3D scenes and images, and have been recently applied to encode videos (e.g., NeRV, E-NeRV). While achieving promising results, existing INR-based methods are limited to encoding a handful of short videos (e.g., seven 5-second videos in the UVG dataset) with redundant visual content, leading to a model design that fits individual video frames independently and is not efficiently scalable to a large number of diverse videos. This paper focuses on developing neural representations for a more practical setup -- encoding long and/or a large number of videos with diverse visual content. We first show that instead of dividing videos into small subsets and encoding them with separate models, encoding long and diverse videos jointly with a unified model achieves better compression results. Based on this observation, we propose D-NeRV, a novel neural representation framework designed to encode diverse videos by (i) decoupling clip-specific visual content from motion information, (ii) introducing temporal reasoning into the implicit neural network, and (iii) employing the task-oriented flow as intermediate output to reduce spatial redundancies. Our new model largely surpasses NeRV and traditional video compression techniques on UCF101 and UVG datasets on the video compression task. Moreover, when used as an efficient data-loader, D-NeRV achieves 3%-10% higher accuracy than NeRV on action recognition tasks on the UCF101 dataset under the same compression ratios.

DINER: Disorder-Invariant Implicit Neural Representation

Shaowen Xie · Hao Zhu · Zhen Liu · Qi Zhang · You Zhou · Xun Cao · Zhan Ma

Implicit neural representation (INR) characterizes the attributes of a signal as a function of corresponding coordinates which emerges as a sharp weapon for solving inverse problems. However, the capacity of INR is limited by the spectral bias in the network training. In this paper, we find that such a frequency-related problem could be largely solved by re-arranging the coordinates of the input signal, for which we propose the disorder-invariant implicit neural representation (DINER) by augmenting a hash-table to a traditional INR backbone. Given discrete signals sharing the same histogram of attributes and different arrangement orders, the hash-table could project the coordinates into the same distribution for which the mapped signal can be better modeled using the subsequent INR network, leading to significantly alleviated spectral bias. Experiments not only reveal the generalization of the DINER for different INR backbones (MLP vs. SIREN) and various tasks (image/video representation, phase retrieval, and refractive index recovery) but also show the superiority over the state-of-the-art algorithms both in quality and speed.

SCConv: Spatial and Channel Reconstruction Convolution for Feature Redundancy

Jiafeng Li · Ying Wen · Lianghua He

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have achieved remarkable performance in various computer vision tasks but this comes at the cost of tremendous computational resources, partly due to convolutional layers extracting redundant features. Recent works either compress well-trained large-scale models or explore well-designed lightweight models. In this paper, we make an attempt to exploit spatial and channel redundancy among features for CNN compression and propose an efficient convolution module, called SCConv (Spatial and Channel reconstruction Convolution), to decrease redundant computing and facilitate representative feature learning. The proposed SCConv consists of two units: spatial reconstruction unit (SRU) and channel reconstruction unit (CRU). SRU utilizes a separate-and-reconstruct method to suppress the spatial redundancy while CRU uses a split-transform-and-fuse strategy to diminish the channel redundancy. In addition, SCConv is a plug-and-play architectural unit that can be used to replace standard convolution in various convolutional neural networks directly. Experimental results show that SCConv-embedded models are able to achieve better performance by reducing redundant features with significantly lower complexity and computational costs.

DeepMAD: Mathematical Architecture Design for Deep Convolutional Neural Network

Xuan Shen · Yaohua Wang · Ming Lin · Yilun Huang · Hao Tang · Xiuyu Sun · Yanzhi Wang

The rapid advances in Vision Transformer (ViT) refresh the state-of-the-art performances in various vision tasks, overshadowing the conventional CNN-based models. This ignites a few recent striking-back research in the CNN world showing that pure CNN models can achieve as good performance as ViT models when carefully tuned. While encouraging, designing such high-performance CNN models is challenging, requiring non-trivial prior knowledge of network design. To this end, a novel framework termed Mathematical Architecture Design for Deep CNN~(DeepMAD) is proposed to design high-performance CNN models in a principled way. In DeepMAD, a CNN network is modeled as an information processing system whose expressiveness and effectiveness can be analytically formulated by their structural parameters. Then a constrained mathematical programming (MP) problem is proposed to optimize these structural parameters. The MP problem can be easily solved by off-the-shelf MP solvers on CPUs with a small memory footprint. In addition, DeepMAD is a pure mathematical framework: no GPU or training data is required during network design. The superiority of DeepMAD is validated on multiple large-scale computer vision benchmark datasets. Notably on ImageNet-1k, only using conventional convolutional layers, DeepMAD achieves 0.7% and 1.5% higher top-1 accuracy than ConvNeXt and Swin on Tiny level, and 0.8% and 0.9% higher on Small level.

Optimization-Inspired Cross-Attention Transformer for Compressive Sensing

Jiechong Song · Chong Mou · Shiqi Wang · Siwei Ma · Jian Zhang

By integrating certain optimization solvers with deep neural networks, deep unfolding network (DUN) with good interpretability and high performance has attracted growing attention in compressive sensing (CS). However, existing DUNs often improve the visual quality at the price of a large number of parameters and have the problem of feature information loss during iteration. In this paper, we propose an Optimization-inspired Cross-attention Transformer (OCT) module as an iterative process, leading to a lightweight OCT-based Unfolding Framework (OCTUF) for image CS. Specifically, we design a novel Dual Cross Attention (Dual-CA) sub-module, which consists of an Inertia-Supplied Cross Attention (ISCA) block and a Projection-Guided Cross Attention (PGCA) block. ISCA block introduces multi-channel inertia forces and increases the memory effect by a cross attention mechanism between adjacent iterations. And, PGCA block achieves an enhanced information interaction, which introduces the inertia force into the gradient descent step through a cross attention block. Extensive CS experiments manifest that our OCTUF achieves superior performance compared to state-of-the-art methods while training lower complexity. Codes are available at

Neighborhood Attention Transformer

Ali Hassani · Steven Walton · Jiachen Li · Shen Li · Humphrey Shi

We present Neighborhood Attention (NA), the first efficient and scalable sliding window attention mechanism for vision. NA is a pixel-wise operation, localizing self attention (SA) to the nearest neighboring pixels, and therefore enjoys a linear time and space complexity compared to the quadratic complexity of SA. The sliding window pattern allows NA’s receptive field to grow without needing extra pixel shifts, and preserves translational equivariance, unlike Swin Transformer’s Window Self Attention (WSA). We develop NATTEN (Neighborhood Attention Extension), a Python package with efficient C++ and CUDA kernels, which allows NA to run up to 40% faster than Swin’s WSA while using up to 25% less memory. We further present Neighborhood Attention Transformer (NAT), a new hierarchical transformer design based on NA that boosts image classification and downstream vision performance. Experimental results on NAT are competitive; NAT-Tiny reaches 83.2% top-1 accuracy on ImageNet, 51.4% mAP on MS-COCO and 48.4% mIoU on ADE20K, which is 1.9% ImageNet accuracy, 1.0% COCO mAP, and 2.6% ADE20K mIoU improvement over a Swin model with similar size. To support more research based on sliding window attention, we open source our project and release our checkpoints.

Making Vision Transformers Efficient From a Token Sparsification View

Shuning Chang · Pichao Wang · Ming Lin · Fan Wang · David Junhao Zhang · Rong Jin · Mike Zheng Shou

The quadratic computational complexity to the number of tokens limits the practical applications of Vision Transformers (ViTs). Several works propose to prune redundant tokens to achieve efficient ViTs. However, these methods generally suffer from (i) dramatic accuracy drops, (ii) application difficulty in the local vision transformer, and (iii) non-general-purpose networks for downstream tasks. In this work, we propose a novel Semantic Token ViT (STViT), for efficient global and local vision transformers, which can also be revised to serve as backbone for downstream tasks. The semantic tokens represent cluster centers, and they are initialized by pooling image tokens in space and recovered by attention, which can adaptively represent global or local semantic information. Due to the cluster properties, a few semantic tokens can attain the same effect as vast image tokens, for both global and local vision transformers. For instance, only 16 semantic tokens on DeiT-(Tiny,Small,Base) can achieve the same accuracy with more than 100% inference speed improvement and nearly 60% FLOPs reduction; on Swin-(Tiny,Small,Base), we can employ 16 semantic tokens in each window to further speed it up by around 20% with slight accuracy increase. Besides great success in image classification, we also extend our method to video recognition. In addition, we design a STViT-R(ecovery) network to restore the detailed spatial information based on the STViT, making it work for downstream tasks, which is powerless for previous token sparsification methods. Experiments demonstrate that our method can achieve competitive results compared to the original networks in object detection and instance segmentation, with over 30% FLOPs reduction for backbone.

Towards Efficient Use of Multi-Scale Features in Transformer-Based Object Detectors

Gongjie Zhang · Zhipeng Luo · Zichen Tian · Jingyi Zhang · Xiaoqin Zhang · Shijian Lu

Multi-scale features have been proven highly effective for object detection but often come with huge and even prohibitive extra computation costs, especially for the recent Transformer-based detectors. In this paper, we propose Iterative Multi-scale Feature Aggregation (IMFA) - a generic paradigm that enables efficient use of multi-scale features in Transformer-based object detectors. The core idea is to exploit sparse multi-scale features from just a few crucial locations, and it is achieved with two novel designs. First, IMFA rearranges the Transformer encoder-decoder pipeline so that the encoded features can be iteratively updated based on the detection predictions. Second, IMFA sparsely samples scale-adaptive features for refined detection from just a few keypoint locations under the guidance of prior detection predictions. As a result, the sampled multi-scale features are sparse yet still highly beneficial for object detection. Extensive experiments show that the proposed IMFA boosts the performance of multiple Transformer-based object detectors significantly yet with only slight computational overhead.

Neuralizer: General Neuroimage Analysis Without Re-Training

Steffen Czolbe · Adrian V. Dalca

Neuroimage processing tasks like segmentation, reconstruction, and registration are central to the study of neuroscience. Robust deep learning strategies and architectures used to solve these tasks are often similar. Yet, when presented with a new task or a dataset with different visual characteristics, practitioners most often need to train a new model, or fine-tune an existing one. This is a time-consuming process that poses a substantial barrier for the thousands of neuroscientists and clinical researchers who often lack the resources or machine-learning expertise to train deep learning models. In practice, this leads to a lack of adoption of deep learning, and neuroscience tools being dominated by classical frameworks. We introduce Neuralizer, a single model that generalizes to previously unseen neuroimaging tasks and modalities without the need for re-training or fine-tuning. Tasks do not have to be known a priori, and generalization happens in a single forward pass during inference. The model can solve processing tasks across multiple image modalities, acquisition methods, and datasets, and generalize to tasks and modalities it has not been trained on. Our experiments on coronal slices show that when few annotated subjects are available, our multi-task network outperforms task-specific baselines without training on the task.

Learning Partial Correlation Based Deep Visual Representation for Image Classification

Saimunur Rahman · Piotr Koniusz · Lei Wang · Luping Zhou · Peyman Moghadam · Changming Sun

Visual representation based on covariance matrix has demonstrates its efficacy for image classification by characterising the pairwise correlation of different channels in convolutional feature maps. However, pairwise correlation will become misleading once there is another channel correlating with both channels of interest, resulting in the “confounding” effect. For this case, “partial correlation” which removes the confounding effect shall be estimated instead. Nevertheless, reliably estimating partial correlation requires to solve a symmetric positive definite matrix optimisation, known as sparse inverse covariance estimation (SICE). How to incorporate this process into CNN remains an open issue. In this work, we formulate SICE as a novel structured layer of CNN. To ensure end-to-end trainability, we develop an iterative method to solve the above matrix optimisation during forward and backward propagation steps. Our work obtains a partial correlation based deep visual representation and mitigates the small sample problem often encountered by covariance matrix estimation in CNN. Computationally, our model can be effectively trained with GPU and works well with a large number of channels of advanced CNNs. Experiments show the efficacy and superior classification performance of our deep visual representation compared to covariance matrix based counterparts.

Understanding Masked Image Modeling via Learning Occlusion Invariant Feature

Xiangwen Kong · Xiangyu Zhang

Recently, Masked Image Modeling (MIM) achieves great success in self-supervised visual recognition. However, as a reconstruction-based framework, it is still an open question to understand how MIM works, since MIM appears very different from previous well-studied siamese approaches such as contrastive learning. In this paper, we propose a new viewpoint: MIM implicitly learns occlusion-invariant features, which is analogous to other siamese methods while the latter learns other invariance. By relaxing MIM formulation into an equivalent siamese form, MIM methods can be interpreted in a unified framework with conventional methods, among which only a) data transformations, i.e. what invariance to learn, and b) similarity measurements are different. Furthermore, taking MAE (He et al., 2021) as a representative example of MIM, we empirically find the success of MIM models relates a little to the choice of similarity functions, but the learned occlusion invariant feature introduced by masked image -- it turns out to be a favored initialization for vision transformers, even though the learned feature could be less semantic. We hope our findings could inspire researchers to develop more powerful self-supervised methods in computer vision community.

MixMAE: Mixed and Masked Autoencoder for Efficient Pretraining of Hierarchical Vision Transformers

Jihao Liu · Xin Huang · Jinliang Zheng · Yu Liu · Hongsheng Li

In this paper, we propose Mixed and Masked AutoEncoder (MixMAE), a simple but efficient pretraining method that is applicable to various hierarchical Vision Transformers. Existing masked image modeling (MIM) methods for hierarchical Vision Transformers replace a random subset of input tokens with a special [MASK] symbol and aim at reconstructing original image tokens from the corrupted image. However, we find that using the [MASK] symbol greatly slows down the training and causes pretraining-finetuning inconsistency, due to the large masking ratio (e.g., 60% in SimMIM). On the other hand, MAE does not introduce [MASK] tokens at its encoder at all but is not applicable for hierarchical Vision Transformers. To solve the issue and accelerate the pretraining of hierarchical models, we replace the masked tokens of one image with visible tokens of another image, i.e., creating a mixed image. We then conduct dual reconstruction to reconstruct the two original images from the mixed input, which significantly improves efficiency. While MixMAE can be applied to various hierarchical Transformers, this paper explores using Swin Transformer with a large window size and scales up to huge model size (to reach 600M parameters). Empirical results demonstrate that MixMAE can learn high-quality visual representations efficiently. Notably, MixMAE with Swin-B/W14 achieves 85.1% top-1 accuracy on ImageNet-1K by pretraining for 600 epochs. Besides, its transfer performances on the other 6 datasets show that MixMAE has better FLOPs / performance tradeoff than previous popular MIM methods.

Adaptive Graph Convolutional Subspace Clustering

Lai Wei · Zhengwei Chen · Jun Yin · Changming Zhu · Rigui Zhou · Jin Liu

Spectral-type subspace clustering algorithms have shown excellent performance in many subspace clustering applications. The existing spectral-type subspace clustering algorithms either focus on designing constraints for the reconstruction coefficient matrix or feature extraction methods for finding latent features of original data samples. In this paper, inspired by graph convolutional networks, we use the graph convolution technique to develop a feature extraction method and a coefficient matrix constraint simultaneously. And the graph-convolutional operator is updated iteratively and adaptively in our proposed algorithm. Hence, we call the proposed method adaptive graph convolutional subspace clustering (AGCSC). We claim that, by using AGCSC, the aggregated feature representation of original data samples is suitable for subspace clustering, and the coefficient matrix could reveal the subspace structure of the original data set more faithfully. Finally, plenty of subspace clustering experiments prove our conclusions and show that AGCSC outperforms some related methods as well as some deep models.

Deep Learning of Partial Graph Matching via Differentiable Top-K

Runzhong Wang · Ziao Guo · Shaofei Jiang · Xiaokang Yang · Junchi Yan

Graph matching (GM) aims at discovering node matching between graphs, by maximizing the node- and edge-wise affinities between the matched elements. As an NP-hard problem, its challenge is further pronounced in the existence of outlier nodes in both graphs which is ubiquitous in practice, especially for vision problems. However, popular affinity-maximization-based paradigms often lack a principled scheme to suppress the false matching and resort to handcrafted thresholding to dismiss the outliers. This limitation is also inherited by the neural GM solvers though they have shown superior performance in the ideal no-outlier setting. In this paper, we propose to formulate the partial GM problem as the top-k selection task with a given/estimated number of inliers k. Specifically, we devise a differentiable top-k module that enables effective gradient descent over the optimal-transport layer, which can be readily plugged into SOTA deep GM pipelines including the quadratic matching network NGMv2 as well as the linear matching network GCAN. Meanwhile, the attention-fused aggregation layers are developed to estimate k to enable automatic outlier-robust matching in the wild. Last but not least, we remake and release a new benchmark called IMC-PT-SparseGM, originating from the IMC-PT stereo-matching dataset. The new benchmark involves more scale-varying graphs and partial matching instances from the real world. Experiments show that our methods outperform other partial matching schemes on popular benchmarks.

DynamicDet: A Unified Dynamic Architecture for Object Detection

Zhihao Lin · Yongtao Wang · Jinhe Zhang · Xiaojie Chu

Dynamic neural network is an emerging research topic in deep learning. With adaptive inference, dynamic models can achieve remarkable accuracy and computational efficiency. However, it is challenging to design a powerful dynamic detector, because of no suitable dynamic architecture and exiting criterion for object detection. To tackle these difficulties, we propose a dynamic framework for object detection, named DynamicDet. Firstly, we carefully design a dynamic architecture based on the nature of the object detection task. Then, we propose an adaptive router to analyze the multi-scale information and to decide the inference route automatically. We also present a novel optimization strategy with an exiting criterion based on the detection losses for our dynamic detectors. Last, we present a variable-speed inference strategy, which helps to realize a wide range of accuracy-speed trade-offs with only one dynamic detector. Extensive experiments conducted on the COCO benchmark demonstrate that the proposed DynamicDet achieves new state-of-the-art accuracy-speed trade-offs. For instance, with comparable accuracy, the inference speed of our dynamic detector Dy-YOLOv7-W6 surpasses YOLOv7-E6 by 12%, YOLOv7-D6 by 17%, and YOLOv7-E6E by 39%. The code is available at

IS-GGT: Iterative Scene Graph Generation With Generative Transformers

Sanjoy Kundu · Sathyanarayanan N. Aakur

Scene graphs provide a rich, structured representation of a scene by encoding the entities (objects) and their spatial relationships in a graphical format. This representation has proven useful in several tasks, such as question answering, captioning, and even object detection, to name a few. Current approaches take a generation-by-classification approach where the scene graph is generated through labeling of all possible edges between objects in a scene, which adds computational overhead to the approach. This work introduces a generative transformer-based approach to generating scene graphs beyond link prediction. Using two transformer-based components, we first sample a possible scene graph structure from detected objects and their visual features. We then perform predicate classification on the sampled edges to generate the final scene graph. This approach allows us to efficiently generate scene graphs from images with minimal inference overhead. Extensive experiments on the Visual Genome dataset demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach. Without bells and whistles, we obtain, on average, 20.7% mean recall (mR@100) across different settings for scene graph generation (SGG), outperforming state-of-the-art SGG approaches while offering competitive performance to unbiased SGG approaches.

Fast Contextual Scene Graph Generation With Unbiased Context Augmentation

Tianlei Jin · Fangtai Guo · Qiwei Meng · Shiqiang Zhu · Xiangming Xi · Wen Wang · Zonghao Mu · Wei Song

Scene graph generation (SGG) methods have historically suffered from long-tail bias and slow inference speed. In this paper, we notice that humans can analyze relationships between objects relying solely on context descriptions,and this abstract cognitive process may be guided by experience. For example, given descriptions of cup and table with their spatial locations, humans can speculate possible relationships < cup, on, table > or < table, near, cup >. Even without visual appearance information, some impossible predicates like flying in and looking at can be empirically excluded. Accordingly, we propose a contextual scene graph generation (C-SGG) method without using visual information and introduce a context augmentation method. We propose that slight perturbations in the position and size of objects do not essentially affect the relationship between objects. Therefore, at the context level, we can produce diverse context descriptions by using a context augmentation method based on the original dataset. These diverse context descriptions can be used for unbiased training of C-SGG to alleviate long-tail bias. In addition, we also introduce a context guided visual scene graph generation (CV-SGG) method, which leverages the C-SGG experience to guide vision to focus on possible predicates. Through extensive experiments on the publicly available dataset, C-SGG alleviates long-tail bias and omits the huge computation of visual feature extraction to realize real-time SGG. CV-SGG achieves a great trade-off between common predicates and tail predicates.

Masked Video Distillation: Rethinking Masked Feature Modeling for Self-Supervised Video Representation Learning

Rui Wang · Dongdong Chen · Zuxuan Wu · Yinpeng Chen · Xiyang Dai · Mengchen Liu · Lu Yuan · Yu-Gang Jiang

Benefiting from masked visual modeling, self-supervised video representation learning has achieved remarkable progress. However, existing methods focus on learning representations from scratch through reconstructing low-level features like raw pixel values. In this paper, we propose masked video distillation (MVD), a simple yet effective two-stage masked feature modeling framework for video representation learning: firstly we pretrain an image (or video) model by recovering low-level features of masked patches, then we use the resulting features as targets for masked feature modeling. For the choice of teacher models, we observe that students taught by video teachers perform better on temporally-heavy video tasks, while image teachers transfer stronger spatial representations for spatially-heavy video tasks. Visualization analysis also indicates different teachers produce different learned patterns for students. To leverage the advantage of different teachers, we design a spatial-temporal co-teaching method for MVD. Specifically, we distill student models from both video teachers and image teachers by masked feature modeling. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that video transformers pretrained with spatial-temporal co-teaching outperform models distilled with a single teacher on a multitude of video datasets. Our MVD with vanilla ViT achieves state-of-the-art performance compared with previous methods on several challenging video downstream tasks. For example, with the ViT-Large model, our MVD achieves 86.4% and 76.7% Top-1 accuracy on Kinetics-400 and Something-Something-v2, outperforming VideoMAE by 1.2% and 2.4% respectively. When a larger ViT-Huge model is adopted, MVD achieves the state-of-the-art performance with 77.3% Top-1 accuracy on Something-Something-v2. Code will be available at

MED-VT: Multiscale Encoder-Decoder Video Transformer With Application To Object Segmentation

Rezaul Karim · He Zhao · Richard P. Wildes · Mennatullah Siam

Multiscale video transformers have been explored in a wide variety of vision tasks. To date, however, the multiscale processing has been confined to the encoder or decoder alone. We present a unified multiscale encoder-decoder transformer that is focused on dense prediction tasks in videos. Multiscale representation at both encoder and decoder yields key benefits of implicit extraction of spatiotemporal features (i.e. without reliance on input optical flow) as well as temporal consistency at encoding and coarse-to-fine detection for high-level (e.g. object) semantics to guide precise localization at decoding. Moreover, we propose a transductive learning scheme through many-to-many label propagation to provide temporally consistent predictions.We showcase our Multiscale Encoder-Decoder Video Transformer (MED-VT) on Automatic Video Object Segmentation (AVOS) and actor/action segmentation, where we outperform state-of-the-art approaches on multiple benchmarks using only raw images, without using optical flow.

MOVES: Manipulated Objects in Video Enable Segmentation

Richard E. L. Higgins · David F. Fouhey

We present a method that uses manipulation to learn to understand the objects people hold and as well as hand-object contact. We train a system that takes a single RGB image and produces a pixel-embedding that can be used to answer grouping questions (do these two pixels go together) as well as hand-association questions (is this hand holding that pixel). Rather painstakingly annotate segmentation masks, we observe people in realistic video data. We show that pairing epipolar geometry with modern optical flow produces simple and effective pseudo-labels for grouping. Given people segmentations, we can further associate pixels with hands to understand contact. Our system achieves competitive results on hand and hand-held object tasks.

InstMove: Instance Motion for Object-Centric Video Segmentation

Qihao Liu · Junfeng Wu · Yi Jiang · Xiang Bai · Alan L. Yuille · Song Bai

Despite significant efforts, cutting-edge video segmentation methods still remain sensitive to occlusion and rapid movement, due to their reliance on the appearance of objects in the form of object embeddings, which are vulnerable to these disturbances. A common solution is to use optical flow to provide motion information, but essentially it only considers pixel-level motion, which still relies on appearance similarity and hence is often inaccurate under occlusion and fast movement. In this work, we study the instance-level motion and present InstMove, which stands for Instance Motion for Object-centric Video Segmentation. In comparison to pixel-wise motion, InstMove mainly relies on instance-level motion information that is free from image feature embeddings, and features physical interpretations, making it more accurate and robust toward occlusion and fast-moving objects. To better fit in with the video segmentation tasks, InstMove uses instance masks to model the physical presence of an object and learns the dynamic model through a memory network to predict its position and shape in the next frame. With only a few lines of code, InstMove can be integrated into current SOTA methods for three different video segmentation tasks and boost their performance. Specifically, we improve the previous arts by 1.5 AP on OVIS dataset, which features heavy occlusions, and 4.9 AP on YouTubeVIS-Long dataset, which mainly contains fast-moving objects. These results suggest that instance-level motion is robust and accurate, and hence serving as a powerful solution in complex scenarios for object-centric video segmentation.

ZBS: Zero-Shot Background Subtraction via Instance-Level Background Modeling and Foreground Selection

Yongqi An · Xu Zhao · Tao Yu · Haiyun Guo · Chaoyang Zhao · Ming Tang · Jinqiao Wang

Background subtraction (BGS) aims to extract all moving objects in the video frames to obtain binary foreground segmentation masks. Deep learning has been widely used in this field. Compared with supervised-based BGS methods, unsupervised methods have better generalization. However, previous unsupervised deep learning BGS algorithms perform poorly in sophisticated scenarios such as shadows or night lights, and they cannot detect objects outside the pre-defined categories. In this work, we propose an unsupervised BGS algorithm based on zero-shot object detection called Zero-shot Background Subtraction ZBS. The proposed method fully utilizes the advantages of zero-shot object detection to build the open-vocabulary instance-level background model. Based on it, the foreground can be effectively extracted by comparing the detection results of new frames with the background model. ZBS performs well for sophisticated scenarios, and it has rich and extensible categories. Furthermore, our method can easily generalize to other tasks, such as abandoned object detection in unseen environments. We experimentally show that ZBS surpasses state-of-the-art unsupervised BGS methods by 4.70% F-Measure on the CDnet 2014 dataset. The code is released at

Feature Aggregated Queries for Transformer-Based Video Object Detectors

Yiming Cui

Video object detection needs to solve feature degradation situations that rarely happen in the image domain. One solution is to use the temporal information and fuse the features from the neighboring frames. With Transformer-based object detectors getting a better performance on the image domain tasks, recent works began to extend those methods to video object detection. However, those existing Transformer-based video object detectors still follow the same pipeline as those used for classical object detectors, like enhancing the object feature representations by aggregation. In this work, we take a different perspective on video object detection. In detail, we improve the qualities of queries for the Transformer-based models by aggregation. To achieve this goal, we first propose a vanilla query aggregation module that weighted averages the queries according to the features of the neighboring frames. Then, we extend the vanilla module to a more practical version, which generates and aggregates queries according to the features of the input frames. Extensive experimental results validate the effectiveness of our proposed methods: On the challenging ImageNet VID benchmark, when integrated with our proposed modules, the current state-of-the-art Transformer-based object detectors can be improved by more than 2.4% on mAP and 4.2% on AP50.

Context-Aware Relative Object Queries To Unify Video Instance and Panoptic Segmentation

Anwesa Choudhuri · Girish Chowdhary · Alexander G. Schwing

Object queries have emerged as a powerful abstraction to generically represent object proposals. However, their use for temporal tasks like video segmentation poses two questions: 1) How to process frames sequentially and propagate object queries seamlessly across frames. Using independent object queries per frame doesn’t permit tracking, and requires post-processing. 2) How to produce temporally consistent, yet expressive object queries that model both appearance and position changes. Using the entire video at once doesn’t capture position changes and doesn’t scale to long videos. As one answer to both questions we propose ‘context-aware relative object queries’, which are continuously propagated frame-by-frame. They seamlessly track objects and deal with occlusion and re-appearance of objects, without post-processing. Further, we find context-aware relative object queries better capture position changes of objects in motion. We evaluate the proposed approach across three challenging tasks: video instance segmentation, multi-object tracking and segmentation, and video panoptic segmentation. Using the same approach and architecture, we match or surpass state-of-the art results on the diverse and challenging OVIS, Youtube-VIS, Cityscapes-VPS, MOTS 2020 and KITTI-MOTS data.

Selective Structured State-Spaces for Long-Form Video Understanding

Jue Wang · Wentao Zhu · Pichao Wang · Xiang Yu · Linda Liu · Mohamed Omar · Raffay Hamid

Effective modeling of complex spatiotemporal dependencies in long-form videos remains an open problem. The recently proposed Structured State-Space Sequence (S4) model with its linear complexity offers a promising direction in this space. However, we demonstrate that treating all image-tokens equally as done by S4 model can adversely affect its efficiency and accuracy. To address this limitation, we present a novel Selective S4 (i.e., S5) model that employs a lightweight mask generator to adaptively select informative image tokens resulting in more efficient and accurate modeling of long-term spatiotemporal dependencies in videos. Unlike previous mask-based token reduction methods used in transformers, our S5 model avoids the dense self-attention calculation by making use of the guidance of the momentum-updated S4 model. This enables our model to efficiently discard less informative tokens and adapt to various long-form video understanding tasks more effectively. However, as is the case for most token reduction methods, the informative image tokens could be dropped incorrectly. To improve the robustness and the temporal horizon of our model, we propose a novel long-short masked contrastive learning (LSMCL) approach that enables our model to predict longer temporal context using shorter input videos. We present extensive comparative results using three challenging long-form video understanding datasets (LVU, COIN and Breakfast), demonstrating that our approach consistently outperforms the previous state-of-the-art S4 model by up to 9.6% accuracy while reducing its memory footprint by 23%.

Relational Space-Time Query in Long-Form Videos

Xitong Yang · Fu-Jen Chu · Matt Feiszli · Raghav Goyal · Lorenzo Torresani · Du Tran

Egocentric videos are often available in the form of uninterrupted, uncurated long videos capturing the camera wearers’ daily life activities.Understanding these videos requires models to be able to reason about activities, objects, and their interactions. However, current video benchmarks study these problems independently and under short, curated clips. In contrast, real-world applications, e.g., AR assistants, require bundling these problems for both model development and evaluation. In this paper, we propose to study these problems in a joint framework for long video understanding. Our contributions are three-fold. First, we propose an integrated framework, namely Relational Space-Time Query (ReST), for evaluating video understanding models via templated spatiotemporal queries. Second, we introduce two new benchmarks, ReST-ADL and ReST-Ego4D, which augment the existing egocentric video datasets with abundant query annotations generated by the ReST framework. Finally, we present a set of baselines and in-depth analysis on the two benchmarks and provide insights about the query tasks. We view our integrated framework and benchmarks as a step towards comprehensive, multi-step reasoning in long videos, and believe it will facilitate the development of next generations of video understanding models.

Novel-View Acoustic Synthesis

Changan Chen · Alexander Richard · Roman Shapovalov · Vamsi Krishna Ithapu · Natalia Neverova · Kristen Grauman · Andrea Vedaldi

We introduce the novel-view acoustic synthesis (NVAS) task: given the sight and sound observed at a source viewpoint, can we synthesize the sound of that scene from an unseen target viewpoint? We propose a neural rendering approach: Visually-Guided Acoustic Synthesis (ViGAS) network that learns to synthesize the sound of an arbitrary point in space by analyzing the input audio-visual cues. To benchmark this task, we collect two first-of-their-kind large-scale multi-view audio-visual datasets, one synthetic and one real. We show that our model successfully reasons about the spatial cues and synthesizes faithful audio on both datasets. To our knowledge, this work represents the very first formulation, dataset, and approach to solve the novel-view acoustic synthesis task, which has exciting potential applications ranging from AR/VR to art and design. Unlocked by this work, we believe that the future of novel-view synthesis is in multi-modal learning from videos.

Learning Audio-Visual Source Localization via False Negative Aware Contrastive Learning

Weixuan Sun · Jiayi Zhang · Jianyuan Wang · Zheyuan Liu · Yiran Zhong · Tianpeng Feng · Yandong Guo · Yanhao Zhang · Nick Barnes

Self-supervised audio-visual source localization aims to locate sound-source objects in video frames without extra annotations. Recent methods often approach this goal with the help of contrastive learning, which assumes only the audio and visual contents from the same video are positive samples for each other. However, this assumption would suffer from false negative samples in real-world training. For example, for an audio sample, treating the frames from the same audio class as negative samples may mislead the model and therefore harm the learned representations (e.g., the audio of a siren wailing may reasonably correspond to the ambulances in multiple images). Based on this observation, we propose a new learning strategy named False Negative Aware Contrastive (FNAC) to mitigate the problem of misleading the training with such false negative samples. Specifically, we utilize the intra-modal similarities to identify potentially similar samples and construct corresponding adjacency matrices to guide contrastive learning. Further, we propose to strengthen the role of true negative samples by explicitly leveraging the visual features of sound sources to facilitate the differentiation of authentic sounding source regions. FNAC achieves state-of-the-art performances on Flickr-SoundNet, VGG-Sound, and AVSBench, which demonstrates the effectiveness of our method in mitigating the false negative issue. The code is available at

Sound to Visual Scene Generation by Audio-to-Visual Latent Alignment

Kim Sung-Bin · Arda Senocak · Hyunwoo Ha · Andrew Owens · Tae-Hyun Oh

How does audio describe the world around us? In this paper, we propose a method for generating an image of a scene from sound. Our method addresses the challenges of dealing with the large gaps that often exist between sight and sound. We design a model that works by scheduling the learning procedure of each model component to associate audio-visual modalities despite their information gaps. The key idea is to enrich the audio features with visual information by learning to align audio to visual latent space. We translate the input audio to visual features, then use a pre-trained generator to produce an image. To further improve the quality of our generated images, we use sound source localization to select the audio-visual pairs that have strong cross-modal correlations. We obtain substantially better results on the VEGAS and VGGSound datasets than prior approaches. We also show that we can control our model’s predictions by applying simple manipulations to the input waveform, or to the latent space.

CASP-Net: Rethinking Video Saliency Prediction From an Audio-Visual Consistency Perceptual Perspective

Junwen Xiong · Ganglai Wang · Peng Zhang · Wei Huang · Yufei Zha · Guangtao Zhai

Incorporating the audio stream enables Video Saliency Prediction (VSP) to imitate the selective attention mechanism of human brain. By focusing on the benefits of joint auditory and visual information, most VSP methods are capable of exploiting semantic correlation between vision and audio modalities but ignoring the negative effects due to the temporal inconsistency of audio-visual intrinsics. Inspired by the biological inconsistency-correction within multi-sensory information, in this study, a consistency-aware audio-visual saliency prediction network (CASP-Net) is proposed, which takes a comprehensive consideration of the audio-visual semantic interaction and consistent perception. In addition a two-stream encoder for elegant association between video frames and corresponding sound source, a novel consistency-aware predictive coding is also designed to improve the consistency within audio and visual representations iteratively. To further aggregate the multi-scale audio-visual information, a saliency decoder is introduced for the final saliency map generation. Substantial experiments demonstrate that the proposed CASP-Net outperforms the other state-of-the-art methods on six challenging audio-visual eye-tracking datasets. For a demo of our system please see

Decompose More and Aggregate Better: Two Closer Looks at Frequency Representation Learning for Human Motion Prediction

Xuehao Gao · Shaoyi Du · Yang Wu · Yang Yang

Encouraged by the effectiveness of encoding temporal dynamics within the frequency domain, recent human motion prediction systems prefer to first convert the motion representation from the original pose space into the frequency space. In this paper, we introduce two closer looks at effective frequency representation learning for robust motion prediction and summarize them as: decompose more and aggregate better. Motivated by these two insights, we develop two powerful units that factorize the frequency representation learning task with a novel decomposition-aggregation two-stage strategy: (1) frequency decomposition unit unweaves multi-view frequency representations from an input body motion by embedding its frequency features into multiple spaces; (2) feature aggregation unit deploys a series of intra-space and inter-space feature aggregation layers to collect comprehensive frequency representations from these spaces for robust human motion prediction. As evaluated on large-scale datasets, we develop a strong baseline model for the human motion prediction task that outperforms state-of-the-art methods by large margins: 8%~12% on Human3.6M, 3%~7% on CMU MoCap, and 7%~10% on 3DPW.

TempSAL – Uncovering Temporal Information for Deep Saliency Prediction

Bahar Aydemir · Ludo Hoffstetter · Tong Zhang · Mathieu Salzmann · Sabine Süsstrunk

Deep saliency prediction algorithms complement the object recognition features, they typically rely on additional information such as scene context, semantic relationships, gaze direction, and object dissimilarity. However, none of these models consider the temporal nature of gaze shifts during image observation. We introduce a novel saliency prediction model that learns to output saliency maps in sequential time intervals by exploiting human temporal attention patterns. Our approach locally modulates the saliency predictions by combining the learned temporal maps. Our experiments show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art models, including a multi-duration saliency model, on the SALICON benchmark and CodeCharts1k dataset. Our code is publicly available on GitHub.

Prompt-Guided Zero-Shot Anomaly Action Recognition Using Pretrained Deep Skeleton Features

Fumiaki Sato · Ryo Hachiuma · Taiki Sekii

This study investigates unsupervised anomaly action recognition, which identifies video-level abnormal-human-behavior events in an unsupervised manner without abnormal samples, and simultaneously addresses three limitations in the conventional skeleton-based approaches: target domain-dependent DNN training, robustness against skeleton errors, and a lack of normal samples. We present a unified, user prompt-guided zero-shot learning framework using a target domain-independent skeleton feature extractor, which is pretrained on a large-scale action recognition dataset. Particularly, during the training phase using normal samples, the method models the distribution of skeleton features of the normal actions while freezing the weights of the DNNs and estimates the anomaly score using this distribution in the inference phase. Additionally, to increase robustness against skeleton errors, we introduce a DNN architecture inspired by a point cloud deep learning paradigm, which sparsely propagates the features between joints. Furthermore, to prevent the unobserved normal actions from being misidentified as abnormal actions, we incorporate a similarity score between the user prompt embeddings and skeleton features aligned in the common space into the anomaly score, which indirectly supplements normal actions. On two publicly available datasets, we conduct experiments to test the effectiveness of the proposed method with respect to abovementioned limitations.

MMG-Ego4D: Multimodal Generalization in Egocentric Action Recognition

Xinyu Gong · Sreyas Mohan · Naina Dhingra · Jean-Charles Bazin · Yilei Li · Zhangyang Wang · Rakesh Ranjan

In this paper, we study a novel problem in egocentric action recognition, which we term as “Multimodal Generalization” (MMG). MMG aims to study how systems can generalize when data from certain modalities is limited or even completely missing. We thoroughly investigate MMG in the context of standard supervised action recognition and the more challenging few-shot setting for learning new action categories. MMG consists of two novel scenarios, designed to support security, and efficiency considerations in real-world applications: (1) missing modality generalization where some modalities that were present during the train time are missing during the inference time, and (2) cross-modal zero-shot generalization, where the modalities present during the inference time and the training time are disjoint. To enable this investigation, we construct a new dataset MMG-Ego4D containing data points with video, audio, and inertial motion sensor (IMU) modalities. Our dataset is derived from Ego4D dataset, but processed and thoroughly re-annotated by human experts to facilitate research in the MMG problem. We evaluate a diverse array of models on MMG-Ego4D and propose new methods with improved generalization ability. In particular, we introduce a new fusion module with modality dropout training, contrastive-based alignment training, and a novel cross-modal prototypical loss for better few-shot performance. We hope this study will serve as a benchmark and guide future research in multimodal generalization problems. The benchmark and code are available at

Active Exploration of Multimodal Complementarity for Few-Shot Action Recognition

Yuyang Wanyan · Xiaoshan Yang · Chaofan Chen · Changsheng Xu

Recently, few-shot action recognition receives increasing attention and achieves remarkable progress. However, previous methods mainly rely on limited unimodal data (e.g., RGB frames) while the multimodal information remains relatively underexplored. In this paper, we propose a novel Active Multimodal Few-shot Action Recognition (AMFAR) framework, which can actively find the reliable modality for each sample based on task-dependent context information to improve few-shot reasoning procedure. In meta-training, we design an Active Sample Selection (ASS) module to organize query samples with large differences in the reliability of modalities into different groups based on modality-specific posterior distributions. In addition, we design an Active Mutual Distillation (AMD) module to capture discriminative task-specific knowledge from the reliable modality to improve the representation learning of unreliable modality by bidirectional knowledge distillation. In meta-test, we adopt Adaptive Multimodal Inference (AMI) module to adaptively fuse the modality-specific posterior distributions with a larger weight on the reliable modality. Extensive experimental results on four public benchmarks demonstrate that our model achieves significant improvements over existing unimodal and multimodal methods.

Reducing the Label Bias for Timestamp Supervised Temporal Action Segmentation

Kaiyuan Liu · Yunheng Li · Shenglan Liu · Chenwei Tan · Zihang Shao

Timestamp supervised temporal action segmentation (TSTAS) is more cost-effective than fully supervised counterparts. However, previous approaches suffer from severe label bias due to over-reliance on sparse timestamp annotations, resulting in unsatisfactory performance. In this paper, we propose the Debiasing-TSTAS (D-TSTAS) framework by exploiting unannotated frames to alleviate this bias from two phases: 1) Initialization. To reduce the dependencies on annotated frames, we propose masked timestamp predictions (MTP) to ensure that initialized model captures more contextual information. 2) Refinement. To overcome the limitation of the expressiveness from sparsely annotated timestamps, we propose a center-oriented timestamp expansion (CTE) approach to progressively expand pseudo-timestamp groups which contain semantic-rich motion representation of action segments. Then, these pseudo-timestamp groups and the model output are used to iteratively generate pseudo-labels for refining the model in a fully supervised setup. We further introduce segmental confidence loss to enable the model to have high confidence predictions within the pseudo-timestamp groups and more accurate action boundaries. Our D-TSTAS outperforms the state-of-the-art TSTAS method as well as achieves competitive results compared with fully supervised approaches on three benchmark datasets.

Soft-Landing Strategy for Alleviating the Task Discrepancy Problem in Temporal Action Localization Tasks

Hyolim Kang · Hanjung Kim · Joungbin An · Minsu Cho · Seon Joo Kim

Temporal Action Localization (TAL) methods typically operate on top of feature sequences from a frozen snippet encoder that is pretrained with the Trimmed Action Classification (TAC) tasks, resulting in a task discrepancy problem. While existing TAL methods mitigate this issue either by retraining the encoder with a pretext task or by end-to-end finetuning, they commonly require an overload of high memory and computation. In this work, we introduce Soft-Landing (SoLa) strategy, an efficient yet effective framework to bridge the transferability gap between the pretrained encoder and the downstream tasks by incorporating a light-weight neural network, i.e., a SoLa module, on top of the frozen encoder. We also propose an unsupervised training scheme for the SoLa module; it learns with inter-frame Similarity Matching that uses the frame interval as its supervisory signal, eliminating the need for temporal annotations. Experimental evaluation on various benchmarks for downstream TAL tasks shows that our method effectively alleviates the task discrepancy problem with remarkable computational efficiency.

Iterative Proposal Refinement for Weakly-Supervised Video Grounding

Meng Cao · Fangyun Wei · Can Xu · Xiubo Geng · Long Chen · Can Zhang · Yuexian Zou · Tao Shen · Daxin Jiang

Weakly-Supervised Video Grounding (WSVG) aims to localize events of interest in untrimmed videos with only video-level annotations. To date, most of the state-of-the-art WSVG methods follow a two-stage pipeline, i.e., firstly generating potential temporal proposals and then grounding with these proposal candidates. Despite the recent progress, existing proposal generation methods suffer from two drawbacks: 1) lack of explicit correspondence modeling; and 2) partial coverage of complex events. To this end, we propose a novel IteRative prOposal refiNement network (dubbed as IRON) to gradually distill the prior knowledge into each proposal and encourage proposals with more complete coverage. Specifically, we set up two lightweight distillation branches to uncover the cross-modal correspondence on both the semantic and conceptual levels. Then, an iterative Label Propagation (LP) strategy is devised to prevent the network from focusing excessively on the most discriminative events instead of the whole sentence content. Precisely, during each iteration, the proposal with the minimal distillation loss and its adjacent ones are regarded as the positive samples, which refines proposal confidence scores in a cascaded manner. Extensive experiments and ablation studies on two challenging WSVG datasets have attested to the effectiveness of our IRON.

Movies2Scenes: Using Movie Metadata To Learn Scene Representation

Shixing Chen · Chun-Hao Liu · Xiang Hao · Xiaohan Nie · Maxim Arap · Raffay Hamid

Understanding scenes in movies is crucial for a variety of applications such as video moderation, search, and recommendation. However, labeling individual scenes is a time-consuming process. In contrast, movie level metadata (e.g., genre, synopsis, etc.) regularly gets produced as part of the film production process, and is therefore significantly more commonly available. In this work, we propose a novel contrastive learning approach that uses movie metadata to learn a general-purpose scene representation. Specifically, we use movie metadata to define a measure of movie similarity, and use it during contrastive learning to limit our search for positive scene-pairs to only the movies that are considered similar to each other. Our learned scene representation consistently outperforms existing state-of-the-art methods on a diverse set of tasks evaluated using multiple benchmark datasets. Notably, our learned representation offers an average improvement of 7.9% on the seven classification tasks and 9.7% improvement on the two regression tasks in LVU dataset. Furthermore, using a newly collected movie dataset, we present comparative results of our scene representation on a set of video moderation tasks to demonstrate its generalizability on previously less explored tasks.

Fine-Tuned CLIP Models Are Efficient Video Learners

Hanoona Rasheed · Muhammad Uzair Khattak · Muhammad Maaz · Salman Khan · Fahad Shahbaz Khan

Large-scale multi-modal training with image-text pairs imparts strong generalization to CLIP model. Since training on a similar scale for videos is infeasible, recent approaches focus on the effective transfer of image-based CLIP to the video domain. In this pursuit, new parametric modules are added to learn temporal information and inter-frame relationships which require meticulous design efforts. Furthermore, when the resulting models are learned on videos, they tend to overfit on the given task distribution and lack in generalization aspect. This begs the following question: How to effectively transfer image-level CLIP representations to videos? In this work, we show that a simple Video Fine-tuned CLIP (ViFi-CLIP) baseline is generally sufficient to bridge the domain gap from images to videos. Our qualitative analysis illustrates that the frame-level processing from CLIP image-encoder followed by feature pooling and similarity matching with corresponding text embeddings helps in implicitly modeling the temporal cues within ViFi-CLIP. Such fine-tuning helps the model to focus on scene dynamics, moving objects and inter-object relationships. For low-data regimes where full fine-tuning is not viable, we propose a ‘bridge and prompt’ approach that first uses finetuning to bridge the domain gap and then learns prompts on language and vision side to adapt CLIP representations. We extensively evaluate this simple yet strong baseline on zero-shot, base-to-novel generalization, few-shot and fully supervised settings across five video benchmarks. Our code and models will be publicly released.

Revisiting Temporal Modeling for CLIP-Based Image-to-Video Knowledge Transferring

Ruyang Liu · Jingjia Huang · Ge Li · Jiashi Feng · Xinglong Wu · Thomas H. Li

Image-text pretrained models, e.g., CLIP, have shown impressive general multi-modal knowledge learned from large-scale image-text data pairs, thus attracting increasing attention for their potential to improve visual representation learning in the video domain. In this paper, based on the CLIP model, we revisit temporal modeling in the context of image-to-video knowledge transferring, which is the key point for extending image-text pretrained models to the video domain. We find that current temporal modeling mechanisms are tailored to either high-level semantic-dominant tasks (e.g., retrieval) or low-level visual pattern-dominant tasks (e.g., recognition), and fail to work on the two cases simultaneously. The key difficulty lies in modeling temporal dependency while taking advantage of both high-level and low-level knowledge in CLIP model. To tackle this problem, we present Spatial-Temporal Auxiliary Network (STAN) -- a simple and effective temporal modeling mechanism extending CLIP model to diverse video tasks. Specifically, to realize both low-level and high-level knowledge transferring, STAN adopts a branch structure with decomposed spatial-temporal modules that enable multi-level CLIP features to be spatial-temporally contextualized. We evaluate our method on two representative video tasks: Video-Text Retrieval and Video Recognition. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of our model over the state-of-the-art methods on various datasets, including MSR-VTT, DiDeMo, LSMDC, MSVD, Kinetics-400, and Something-Something-V2. Codes will be available at

VoP: Text-Video Co-Operative Prompt Tuning for Cross-Modal Retrieval

Siteng Huang · Biao Gong · Yulin Pan · Jianwen Jiang · Yiliang Lv · Yuyuan Li · Donglin Wang

Many recent studies leverage the pre-trained CLIP for text-video cross-modal retrieval by tuning the backbone with additional heavy modules, which not only brings huge computational burdens with much more parameters, but also leads to the knowledge forgetting from upstream models. In this work, we propose the VoP: Text-Video Co-operative Prompt Tuning for efficient tuning on the text-video retrieval task. The proposed VoP is an end-to-end framework with both video & text prompts introducing, which can be regarded as a powerful baseline with only 0.1% trainable parameters. Further, based on the spatio-temporal characteristics of videos, we develop three novel video prompt mechanisms to improve the performance with different scales of trainable parameters. The basic idea of the VoP enhancement is to model the frame position, frame context, and layer function with specific trainable prompts, respectively. Extensive experiments show that compared to full fine-tuning, the enhanced VoP achieves a 1.4% average R@1 gain across five text-video retrieval benchmarks with 6x less parameter overhead. The code will be available at

ProTéGé: Untrimmed Pretraining for Video Temporal Grounding by Video Temporal Grounding

Lan Wang · Gaurav Mittal · Sandra Sajeev · Ye Yu · Matthew Hall · Vishnu Naresh Boddeti · Mei Chen

Video temporal grounding (VTG) is the task of localizing a given natural language text query in an arbitrarily long untrimmed video. While the task involves untrimmed videos, all existing VTG methods leverage features from video backbones pretrained on trimmed videos. This is largely due to the lack of large-scale well-annotated VTG dataset to perform pretraining. As a result, the pretrained features lack a notion of temporal boundaries leading to the video-text alignment being less distinguishable between correct and incorrect locations. We present ProTéGé as the first method to perform VTG-based untrimmed pretraining to bridge the gap between trimmed pretrained backbones and downstream VTG tasks. ProTéGé reconfigures the HowTo100M dataset, with noisily correlated video-text pairs, into a VTG dataset and introduces a novel Video-Text Similarity-based Grounding Module and a pretraining objective to make pretraining robust to noise in HowTo100M. Extensive experiments on multiple datasets across downstream tasks with all variations of supervision validate that pretrained features from ProTéGé can significantly outperform features from trimmed pretrained backbones on VTG.

Learning Video Representations From Large Language Models

Yue Zhao · Ishan Misra · Philipp Krähenbühl · Rohit Girdhar

We introduce LAVILA, a new approach to learning video-language representations by leveraging Large Language Models (LLMs). We repurpose pre-trained LLMs to be conditioned on visual input, and finetune them to create automatic video narrators. Our auto-generated narrations offer a number of advantages, including dense coverage of long videos, better temporal synchronization of the visual information and text, and much higher diversity of text. The video-language embedding learned contrastively with these narrations outperforms the previous state-of-the-art on multiple first-person and third-person video tasks, both in zero-shot and finetuned setups. Most notably, LAVILA obtains an absolute gain of 10.1% on EGTEA classification and 5.9% Epic-Kitchens-100 multi-instance retrieval benchmarks. Furthermore, LAVILA trained with only half the narrations from the Ego4D dataset outperforms models trained on the full set, and shows positive scaling behavior on increasing pre-training data and model size.

All in One: Exploring Unified Video-Language Pre-Training

Jinpeng Wang · Yixiao Ge · Rui Yan · Yuying Ge · Kevin Qinghong Lin · Satoshi Tsutsui · Xudong Lin · Guanyu Cai · Jianping Wu · Ying Shan · Xiaohu Qie · Mike Zheng Shou

Mainstream Video-Language Pre-training models consist of three parts, a video encoder, a text encoder, and a video-text fusion Transformer. They pursue better performance via utilizing heavier unimodal encoders or multimodal fusion Transformers, resulting in increased parameters with lower efficiency in downstream tasks. In this work, we for the first time introduce an end-to-end video-language model, namely all-in-one Transformer, that embeds raw video and textual signals into joint representations using a unified backbone architecture. We argue that the unique temporal information of video data turns out to be a key barrier hindering the design of a modality-agnostic Transformer. To overcome the challenge, we introduce a novel and effective token rolling operation to encode temporal representations from video clips in a non-parametric manner. The careful design enables the representation learning of both video-text multimodal inputs and unimodal inputs using a unified backbone model. Our pre-trained all-in-one Transformer is transferred to various downstream video-text tasks after fine-tuning, including text-video retrieval, video-question answering, multiple choice and visual commonsense reasoning. State-of-the-art performances with the minimal model FLOPs on nine datasets demonstrate the superiority of our method compared to the competitive counterparts.

High-Fidelity Generalized Emotional Talking Face Generation With Multi-Modal Emotion Space Learning

Chao Xu · Junwei Zhu · Jiangning Zhang · Yue Han · Wenqing Chu · Ying Tai · Chengjie Wang · Zhifeng Xie · Yong Liu

Recently, emotional talking face generation has received considerable attention. However, existing methods only adopt one-hot coding, image, or audio as emotion conditions, thus lacking flexible control in practical applications and failing to handle unseen emotion styles due to limited semantics. They either ignore the one-shot setting or the quality of generated faces. In this paper, we propose a more flexible and generalized framework. Specifically, we supplement the emotion style in text prompts and use an Aligned Multi-modal Emotion encoder to embed the text, image, and audio emotion modality into a unified space, which inherits rich semantic prior from CLIP. Consequently, effective multi-modal emotion space learning helps our method support arbitrary emotion modality during testing and could generalize to unseen emotion styles. Besides, an Emotion-aware Audio-to-3DMM Convertor is proposed to connect the emotion condition and the audio sequence to structural representation. A followed style-based High-fidelity Emotional Face generator is designed to generate arbitrary high-resolution realistic identities. Our texture generator hierarchically learns flow fields and animated faces in a residual manner. Extensive experiments demonstrate the flexibility and generalization of our method in emotion control and the effectiveness of high-quality face synthesis.

Bidirectional Cross-Modal Knowledge Exploration for Video Recognition With Pre-Trained Vision-Language Models

Wenhao Wu · Xiaohan Wang · Haipeng Luo · Jingdong Wang · Yi Yang · Wanli Ouyang

Vision-language models (VLMs) pre-trained on large-scale image-text pairs have demonstrated impressive transferability on various visual tasks. Transferring knowledge from such powerful VLMs is a promising direction for building effective video recognition models. However, current exploration in this field is still limited. We believe that the greatest value of pre-trained VLMs lies in building a bridge between visual and textual domains. In this paper, we propose a novel framework called BIKE, which utilizes the cross-modal bridge to explore bidirectional knowledge: i) We introduce the Video Attribute Association mechanism, which leverages the Video-to-Text knowledge to generate textual auxiliary attributes for complementing video recognition. ii) We also present a Temporal Concept Spotting mechanism that uses the Text-to-Video expertise to capture temporal saliency in a parameter-free manner, leading to enhanced video representation. Extensive studies on six popular video datasets, including Kinetics-400 & 600, UCF-101, HMDB-51, ActivityNet and Charades, show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance in various recognition scenarios, such as general, zero-shot, and few-shot video recognition. Our best model achieves a state-of-the-art accuracy of 88.6% on the challenging Kinetics-400 using the released CLIP model. The code is available at

Decoupled Multimodal Distilling for Emotion Recognition

Yong Li · Yuanzhi Wang · Zhen Cui

Human multimodal emotion recognition (MER) aims to perceive human emotions via language, visual and acoustic modalities. Despite the impressive performance of previous MER approaches, the inherent multimodal heterogeneities still haunt and the contribution of different modalities varies significantly. In this work, we mitigate this issue by proposing a decoupled multimodal distillation (DMD) approach that facilitates flexible and adaptive crossmodal knowledge distillation, aiming to enhance the discriminative features of each modality. Specially, the representation of each modality is decoupled into two parts, i.e., modality-irrelevant/-exclusive spaces, in a self-regression manner. DMD utilizes a graph distillation unit (GD-Unit) for each decoupled part so that each GD can be performed in a more specialized and effective manner. A GD-Unit consists of a dynamic graph where each vertice represents a modality and each edge indicates a dynamic knowledge distillation. Such GD paradigm provides a flexible knowledge transfer manner where the distillation weights can be automatically learned, thus enabling diverse crossmodal knowledge transfer patterns. Experimental results show DMD consistently obtains superior performance than state-of-the-art MER methods. Visualization results show the graph edges in DMD exhibit meaningful distributional patterns w.r.t. the modality-irrelevant/-exclusive feature spaces. Codes are released at

Affection: Learning Affective Explanations for Real-World Visual Data

Panos Achlioptas · Maks Ovsjanikov · Leonidas Guibas · Sergey Tulyakov

In this work, we explore the space of emotional reactions induced by real-world images. For this, we first introduce a large-scale dataset that contains both categorical emotional reactions and free-form textual explanations for 85,007 publicly available images, analyzed by 6,283 annotators who were asked to indicate and explain how and why they felt when observing a particular image, with a total of 526,749 responses. Although emotional reactions are subjective and sensitive to context (personal mood, social status, past experiences) -- we show that there is significant common ground to capture emotional responses with a large support in the subject population. In light of this observation, we ask the following questions: i) Can we develop neural networks that provide plausible affective responses to real-world visual data explained with language? ii) Can we steer such methods towards producing explanations with varying degrees of pragmatic language, justifying different emotional reactions by grounding them in the visual stimulus? Finally, iii) How to evaluate the performance of such methods for this novel task? In this work, we take the first steps in addressing all of these questions, paving the way for more human-centric and emotionally-aware image analysis systems. Our code and data are publicly available at

An Actor-Centric Causality Graph for Asynchronous Temporal Inference in Group Activity

Zhao Xie · Tian Gao · Kewei Wu · Jiao Chang

The causality relation modeling remains a challenging task for group activity recognition. The causality relations describe the influence of some actors (cause actors) on other actors (effect actors). Most existing graph models focus on learning the actor relation with synchronous temporal features, which is insufficient to deal with the causality relation with asynchronous temporal features. In this paper, we propose an Actor-Centric Causality Graph Model, which learns the asynchronous temporal causality relation with three modules, i.e., an asynchronous temporal causality relation detection module, a causality feature fusion module, and a causality relation graph inference module. First, given a centric actor and correlative actor, we analyze their influences to detect causality relation. We estimate the self influence of the centric actor with self regression. We estimate the correlative influence from the correlative actor to the centric actor with correlative regression, which uses asynchronous features at different timestamps. Second, we synchronize the two action features by estimating the temporal delay between the cause action and the effect action. The synchronized features are used to enhance the feature of the effect action with a channel-wise fusion. Third, we describe the nodes (actors) with causality features and learn the edges by fusing the causality relation with the appearance relation and distance relation. The causality relation graph inference provides crucial features of effect action, which are complementary to the base model using synchronous relation inference. The two relation inferences are aggregated to enhance group relation learning. Extensive experiments show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on the Volleyball dataset and Collective Activity dataset.

VLPD: Context-Aware Pedestrian Detection via Vision-Language Semantic Self-Supervision

Mengyin Liu · Jie Jiang · Chao Zhu · Xu-Cheng Yin

Detecting pedestrians accurately in urban scenes is significant for realistic applications like autonomous driving or video surveillance. However, confusing human-like objects often lead to wrong detections, and small scale or heavily occluded pedestrians are easily missed due to their unusual appearances. To address these challenges, only object regions are inadequate, thus how to fully utilize more explicit and semantic contexts becomes a key problem. Meanwhile, previous context-aware pedestrian detectors either only learn latent contexts with visual clues, or need laborious annotations to obtain explicit and semantic contexts. Therefore, we propose in this paper a novel approach via Vision-Language semantic self-supervision for context-aware Pedestrian Detection (VLPD) to model explicitly semantic contexts without any extra annotations. Firstly, we propose a self-supervised Vision-Language Semantic (VLS) segmentation method, which learns both fully-supervised pedestrian detection and contextual segmentation via self-generated explicit labels of semantic classes by vision-language models. Furthermore, a self-supervised Prototypical Semantic Contrastive (PSC) learning method is proposed to better discriminate pedestrians and other classes, based on more explicit and semantic contexts obtained from VLS. Extensive experiments on popular benchmarks show that our proposed VLPD achieves superior performances over the previous state-of-the-arts, particularly under challenging circumstances like small scale and heavy occlusion. Code is available at

3D-Aware Object Goal Navigation via Simultaneous Exploration and Identification

Jiazhao Zhang · Liu Dai · Fanpeng Meng · Qingnan Fan · Xuelin Chen · Kai Xu · He Wang

Object goal navigation (ObjectNav) in unseen environments is a fundamental task for Embodied AI. Agents in existing works learn ObjectNav policies based on 2D maps, scene graphs, or image sequences. Considering this task happens in 3D space, a 3D-aware agent can advance its ObjectNav capability via learning from fine-grained spatial information. However, leveraging 3D scene representation can be prohibitively unpractical for policy learning in this floor-level task, due to low sample efficiency and expensive computational cost. In this work, we propose a framework for the challenging 3D-aware ObjectNav based on two straightforward sub-policies. The two sub-polices, namely corner-guided exploration policy and category-aware identification policy, simultaneously perform by utilizing online fused 3D points as observation. Through extensive experiments, we show that this framework can dramatically improve the performance in ObjectNav through learning from 3D scene representation. Our framework achieves the best performance among all modular-based methods on the Matterport3D and Gibson datasets while requiring (up to30x) less computational cost for training. The code will be released to benefit the community.

Meta-Explore: Exploratory Hierarchical Vision-and-Language Navigation Using Scene Object Spectrum Grounding

Minyoung Hwang · Jaeyeon Jeong · Minsoo Kim · Yoonseon Oh · Songhwai Oh

The main challenge in vision-and-language navigation (VLN) is how to understand natural-language instructions in an unseen environment. The main limitation of conventional VLN algorithms is that if an action is mistaken, the agent fails to follow the instructions or explores unnecessary regions, leading the agent to an irrecoverable path. To tackle this problem, we propose Meta-Explore, a hierarchical navigation method deploying an exploitation policy to correct misled recent actions. We show that an exploitation policy, which moves the agent toward a well-chosen local goal among unvisited but observable states, outperforms a method which moves the agent to a previously visited state. We also highlight the demand for imagining regretful explorations with semantically meaningful clues. The key to our approach is understanding the object placements around the agent in spectral-domain. Specifically, we present a novel visual representation, called scene object spectrum (SOS), which performs category-wise 2D Fourier transform of detected objects. Combining exploitation policy and SOS features, the agent can correct its path by choosing a promising local goal. We evaluate our method in three VLN benchmarks: R2R, SOON, and REVERIE. Meta-Explore outperforms other baselines and shows significant generalization performance. In addition, local goal search using the proposed spectral-domain SOS features significantly improves the success rate by 17.1% and SPL by 20.6% for the SOON benchmark.

NaQ: Leveraging Narrations As Queries To Supervise Episodic Memory

Santhosh Kumar Ramakrishnan · Ziad Al-Halah · Kristen Grauman

Searching long egocentric videos with natural language queries (NLQ) has compelling applications in augmented reality and robotics, where a fluid index into everything that a person (agent) has seen before could augment human memory and surface relevant information on demand. However, the structured nature of the learning problem (free-form text query inputs, localized video temporal window outputs) and its needle-in-a-haystack nature makes it both technically challenging and expensive to supervise. We introduce Narrations-as-Queries (NaQ), a data augmentation strategy that transforms standard video-text narrations into training data for a video query localization model. Validating our idea on the Ego4D benchmark, we find it has tremendous impact in practice. NaQ improves multiple top models by substantial margins (even doubling their accuracy), and yields the very best results to date on the Ego4D NLQ challenge, soundly outperforming all challenge winners in the CVPR and ECCV 2022 competitions and topping the current public leaderboard. Beyond achieving the state-of-the-art for NLQ, we also demonstrate unique properties of our approach such as the ability to perform zero-shot and few-shot NLQ, and improved performance on queries about long-tail object categories. Code and models:

EC2: Emergent Communication for Embodied Control

Yao Mu · Shunyu Yao · Mingyu Ding · Ping Luo · Chuang Gan

Embodied control requires agents to leverage multi-modal pre-training to quickly learn how to act in new environments, where video demonstrations contain visual and motion details needed for low-level perception and control, and language instructions support generalization with abstract, symbolic structures. While recent approaches apply contrastive learning to force alignment between the two modalities, we hypothesize better modeling their complementary differences can lead to more holistic representations for downstream adaption. To this end, we propose Emergent Communication for Embodied Control (EC^2), a novel scheme to pre-train video-language representations for few-shot embodied control. The key idea is to learn an unsupervised “language” of videos via emergent communication, which bridges the semantics of video details and structures of natural language. We learn embodied representations of video trajectories, emergent language, and natural language using a language model, which is then used to finetune a lightweight policy network for downstream control. Through extensive experiments in Metaworld and Franka Kitchen embodied benchmarks, EC^2 is shown to consistently outperform previous contrastive learning methods for both videos and texts as task inputs. Further ablations confirm the importance of the emergent language, which is beneficial for both video and language learning, and significantly superior to using pre-trained video captions. We also present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the emergent language and discuss future directions toward better understanding and leveraging emergent communication in embodied tasks.

Abstract Visual Reasoning: An Algebraic Approach for Solving Raven’s Progressive Matrices

Jingyi Xu · Tushar Vaidya · Yufei Wu · Saket Chandra · Zhangsheng Lai · Kai Fong Ernest Chong

We introduce algebraic machine reasoning, a new reasoning framework that is well-suited for abstract reasoning. Effectively, algebraic machine reasoning reduces the difficult process of novel problem-solving to routine algebraic computation. The fundamental algebraic objects of interest are the ideals of some suitably initialized polynomial ring. We shall explain how solving Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPMs) can be realized as computational problems in algebra, which combine various well-known algebraic subroutines that include: Computing the Gröbner basis of an ideal, checking for ideal containment, etc. Crucially, the additional algebraic structure satisfied by ideals allows for more operations on ideals beyond set-theoretic operations. Our algebraic machine reasoning framework is not only able to select the correct answer from a given answer set, but also able to generate the correct answer with only the question matrix given. Experiments on the I-RAVEN dataset yield an overall 93.2% accuracy, which significantly outperforms the current state-of-the-art accuracy of 77.0% and exceeds human performance at 84.4% accuracy.

Logical Implications for Visual Question Answering Consistency

Sergio Tascon-Morales · Pablo Márquez-Neila · Raphael Sznitman

Despite considerable recent progress in Visual Question Answering (VQA) models, inconsistent or contradictory answers continue to cast doubt on their true reasoning capabilities. However, most proposed methods use indirect strategies or strong assumptions on pairs of questions and answers to enforce model consistency. Instead, we propose a novel strategy intended to improve model performance by directly reducing logical inconsistencies. To do this, we introduce a new consistency loss term that can be used by a wide range of the VQA models and which relies on knowing the logical relation between pairs of questions and answers. While such information is typically not available in VQA datasets, we propose to infer these logical relations using a dedicated language model and use these in our proposed consistency loss function. We conduct extensive experiments on the VQA Introspect and DME datasets and show that our method brings improvements to state-of-the-art VQA models while being robust across different architectures and settings.

Divide and Conquer: Answering Questions With Object Factorization and Compositional Reasoning

Shi Chen · Qi Zhao

Humans have the innate capability to answer diverse questions, which is rooted in the natural ability to correlate different concepts based on their semantic relationships and decompose difficult problems into sub-tasks. On the contrary, existing visual reasoning methods assume training samples that capture every possible object and reasoning problem, and rely on black-boxed models that commonly exploit statistical priors. They have yet to develop the capability to address novel objects or spurious biases in real-world scenarios, and also fall short of interpreting the rationales behind their decisions. Inspired by humans’ reasoning of the visual world, we tackle the aforementioned challenges from a compositional perspective, and propose an integral framework consisting of a principled object factorization method and a novel neural module network. Our factorization method decomposes objects based on their key characteristics, and automatically derives prototypes that represent a wide range of objects. With these prototypes encoding important semantics, the proposed network then correlates objects by measuring their similarity on a common semantic space and makes decisions with a compositional reasoning process. It is capable of answering questions with diverse objects regardless of their availability during training, and overcoming the issues of biased question-answer distributions. In addition to the enhanced generalizability, our framework also provides an interpretable interface for understanding the decision-making process of models. Our code is available at

The Dialog Must Go On: Improving Visual Dialog via Generative Self-Training

Gi-Cheon Kang · Sungdong Kim · Jin-Hwa Kim · Donghyun Kwak · Byoung-Tak Zhang

Visual dialog (VisDial) is a task of answering a sequence of questions grounded in an image, using the dialog history as context. Prior work has trained the dialog agents solely on VisDial data via supervised learning or leveraged pre-training on related vision-and-language datasets. This paper presents a semi-supervised learning approach for visually-grounded dialog, called Generative Self-Training (GST), to leverage unlabeled images on the Web. Specifically, GST first retrieves in-domain images through out-of-distribution detection and generates synthetic dialogs regarding the images via multimodal conditional text generation. GST then trains a dialog agent on the synthetic and the original VisDial data. As a result, GST scales the amount of training data up to an order of magnitude that of VisDial (1.2M to 12.9M QA data). For robust training of the synthetic dialogs, we also propose perplexity-based data selection and multimodal consistency regularization. Evaluation on VisDial v1.0 and v0.9 datasets shows that GST achieves new state-of-the-art results on both datasets. We further observe the robustness of GST against both visual and textual adversarial attacks. Finally, GST yields strong performance gains in the low-data regime. Code is available at

Visual-Language Prompt Tuning With Knowledge-Guided Context Optimization

Hantao Yao · Rui Zhang · Changsheng Xu

Prompt tuning is an effective way to adapt the pretrained visual-language model (VLM) to the downstream task using task-related textual tokens. Representative CoOp-based works combine the learnable textual tokens with the class tokens to obtain specific textual knowledge. However, the specific textual knowledge has worse generalizable to the unseen classes because it forgets the essential general textual knowledge having a strong generalization ability. To tackle this issue, we introduce a novel Knowledge-guided Context Optimization (KgCoOp) to enhance the generalization ability of the learnable prompt for unseen classes. To remember the essential general knowledge, KgCoOp constructs a regularization term to ensure that the essential general textual knowledge can be embedded into the special textual knowledge generated by the learnable prompt. Especially, KgCoOp minimizes the discrepancy between the textual embeddings generated by learned prompts and the hand-crafted prompts. Finally, adding the KgCoOp upon the contrastive loss can make a discriminative prompt for both seen and unseen tasks. Extensive evaluation of several benchmarks demonstrates that the proposed Knowledge-guided Context Optimization is an efficient method for prompt tuning, i.e., achieves better performance with less training time.

Probabilistic Prompt Learning for Dense Prediction

Hyeongjun Kwon · Taeyong Song · Somi Jeong · Jin Kim · Jinhyun Jang · Kwanghoon Sohn

Recent progress in deterministic prompt learning has become a promising alternative to various downstream vision tasks, enabling models to learn powerful visual representations with the help of pre-trained vision-language models. However, this approach results in limited performance for dense prediction tasks that require handling more complex and diverse objects, since a single and deterministic description cannot sufficiently represent the entire image. In this paper, we present a novel probabilistic prompt learning to fully exploit the vision-language knowledge in dense prediction tasks. First, we introduce learnable class-agnostic attribute prompts to describe universal attributes across the object class. The attributes are combined with class information and visual-context knowledge to define the class-specific textual distribution. Text representations are sampled and used to guide the dense prediction task using the probabilistic pixel-text matching loss, enhancing the stability and generalization capability of the proposed method. Extensive experiments on different dense prediction tasks and ablation studies demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

Is BERT Blind? Exploring the Effect of Vision-and-Language Pretraining on Visual Language Understanding

Morris Alper · Michael Fiman · Hadar Averbuch-Elor

Most humans use visual imagination to understand and reason about language, but models such as BERT reason about language using knowledge acquired during text-only pretraining. In this work, we investigate whether vision-and-language pretraining can improve performance on text-only tasks that involve implicit visual reasoning, focusing primarily on zero-shot probing methods. We propose a suite of visual language understanding (VLU) tasks for probing the visual reasoning abilities of text encoder models, as well as various non-visual natural language understanding (NLU) tasks for comparison. We also contribute a novel zero-shot knowledge probing method, Stroop probing, for applying models such as CLIP to text-only tasks without needing a prediction head such as the masked language modelling head of models like BERT. We show that SOTA multimodally trained text encoders outperform unimodally trained text encoders on the VLU tasks while being underperformed by them on the NLU tasks, lending new context to previously mixed results regarding the NLU capabilities of multimodal models. We conclude that exposure to images during pretraining affords inherent visual reasoning knowledge that is reflected in language-only tasks that require implicit visual reasoning. Our findings bear importance in the broader context of multimodal learning, providing principled guidelines for the choice of text encoders used in such contexts.

Seeing What You Miss: Vision-Language Pre-Training With Semantic Completion Learning

Yatai Ji · Rongcheng Tu · Jie Jiang · Weijie Kong · Chengfei Cai · Wenzhe Zhao · Hongfa Wang · Yujiu Yang · Wei Liu

Cross-modal alignment is essential for vision-language pre-training (VLP) models to learn the correct corresponding information across different modalities. For this purpose, inspired by the success of masked language modeling (MLM) tasks in the NLP pre-training area, numerous masked modeling tasks have been proposed for VLP to further promote cross-modal interactions. The core idea of previous masked modeling tasks is to focus on reconstructing the masked tokens based on visible context for learning local-to-local alignment. However, most of them pay little attention to the global semantic features generated for the masked data, resulting in a limited cross-modal alignment ability of global representations. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel Semantic Completion Learning (SCL) task, complementary to existing masked modeling tasks, to facilitate global-to-local alignment. Specifically, the SCL task complements the missing semantics of masked data by capturing the corresponding information from the other modality, promoting learning more representative global features which have a great impact on the performance of downstream tasks. Moreover, we present a flexible vision encoder, which enables our model to perform image-text and video-text multimodal tasks simultaneously. Experimental results show that our proposed method obtains state-of-the-art performance on various vision-language benchmarks, such as visual question answering, image-text retrieval, and video-text retrieval.

Affordance Grounding From Demonstration Video To Target Image

Joya Chen · Difei Gao · Kevin Qinghong Lin · Mike Zheng Shou

Humans excel at learning from expert demonstrations and solving their own problems. To equip intelligent robots and assistants, such as AR glasses, with this ability, it is essential to ground human hand interactions (i.e., affordances) from demonstration videos and apply them to a target image like a user’s AR glass view. The video-to-image affordance grounding task is challenging due to (1) the need to predict fine-grained affordances, and (2) the limited training data, which inadequately covers video-image discrepancies and negatively impacts grounding. To tackle them, we propose Affordance Transformer (Afformer), which has a fine-grained transformer-based decoder that gradually refines affordance grounding. Moreover, we introduce Mask Affordance Hand (MaskAHand), a self-supervised pretraining technique for synthesizing video-image data and simulating context changes, enhancing affordance grounding across video-image discrepancies. Afformer with MaskAHand pre-training achieves state-of-the-art performance on multiple benchmarks, including a substantial 37% improvement on the OPRA dataset. Code is made available at

Leverage Interactive Affinity for Affordance Learning

Hongchen Luo · Wei Zhai · Jing Zhang · Yang Cao · Dacheng Tao

Perceiving potential “action possibilities” (i.e., affordance) regions of images and learning interactive functionalities of objects from human demonstration is a challenging task due to the diversity of human-object interactions. Prevailing affordance learning algorithms often adopt the label assignment paradigm and presume that there is a unique relationship between functional region and affordance label, yielding poor performance when adapting to unseen environments with large appearance variations. In this paper, we propose to leverage interactive affinity for affordance learning, i.e., extracting interactive affinity from human-object interaction and transferring it to non-interactive objects. Interactive affinity, which represents the contacts between different parts of the human body and local regions of the target object, can provide inherent cues of interconnectivity between humans and objects, thereby reducing the ambiguity of the perceived action possibilities. Specifically, we propose a pose-aided interactive affinity learning framework that exploits human pose to guide the network to learn the interactive affinity from human-object interactions. Particularly, a keypoint heuristic perception (KHP) scheme is devised to exploit the keypoint association of human pose to alleviate the uncertainties due to interaction diversities and contact occlusions. Besides, a contact-driven affordance learning (CAL) dataset is constructed by collecting and labeling over 5,000 images. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms the representative models regarding objective metrics and visual quality. Code and dataset:

DeAR: Debiasing Vision-Language Models With Additive Residuals

Ashish Seth · Mayur Hemani · Chirag Agarwal

Large pre-trained vision-language models (VLMs) reduce the time for developing predictive models for various vision-grounded language downstream tasks by providing rich, adaptable image and text representations. However, these models suffer from societal biases owing to the skewed distribution of various identity groups in the training data. These biases manifest as the skewed similarity between the representations for specific text concepts and images of people of different identity groups and, therefore, limit the usefulness of such models in real-world high-stakes applications. In this work, we present DeAR (Debiasing with Additive Residuals), a novel debiasing method that learns additive residual image representations to offset the original representations, ensuring fair output representations. In doing so, it reduces the ability of the representations to distinguish between the different identity groups. Further, we observe that the current fairness tests are performed on limited face image datasets that fail to indicate why a specific text concept should/should not apply to them. To bridge this gap and better evaluate DeAR, we introduce a new context-based bias benchmarking dataset - the Protected Attribute Tag Association (PATA) dataset for evaluating the fairness of large pre-trained VLMs. Additionally, PATA provides visual context for a diverse human population in different scenarios with both positive and negative connotations. Experimental results for fairness and zero-shot performance preservation using multiple datasets demonstrate the efficacy of our framework.

Images Speak in Images: A Generalist Painter for In-Context Visual Learning

Xinlong Wang · Wen Wang · Yue Cao · Chunhua Shen · Tiejun Huang

In-context learning, as a new paradigm in NLP, allows the model to rapidly adapt to various tasks with only a handful of prompts and examples. But in computer vision, the difficulties for in-context learning lie in that tasks vary significantly in the output representations, thus it is unclear how to define the general-purpose task prompts that the vision model can understand and transfer to out-of-domain tasks. In this work, we present Painter, a generalist model which addresses these obstacles with an “image”-centric solution, that is, to redefine the output of core vision tasks as images, and specify task prompts as also images. With this idea, our training process is extremely simple, which performs standard masked image modeling on the stitch of input and output image pairs. This makes the model capable of performing tasks conditioned on visible image patches. Thus, during inference, we can adopt a pair of input and output images from the same task as the input condition, to indicate which task to perform. Without bells and whistles, our generalist Painter can achieve competitive performance compared to well-established task-specific models, on seven representative vision tasks ranging from high-level visual understanding to low-level image processing. In addition, Painter significantly outperforms recent generalist models on several challenging tasks.

Hyperbolic Contrastive Learning for Visual Representations Beyond Objects

Songwei Ge · Shlok Mishra · Simon Kornblith · Chun-Liang Li · David Jacobs

Although self-/un-supervised methods have led to rapid progress in visual representation learning, these methods generally treat objects and scenes using the same lens. In this paper, we focus on learning representations of objects and scenes that preserve the structure among them. Motivated by the observation that visually similar objects are close in the representation space, we argue that the scenes and objects should instead follow a hierarchical structure based on their compositionality. To exploit such a structure, we propose a contrastive learning framework where a Euclidean loss is used to learn object representations and a hyperbolic loss is used to encourage representations of scenes to lie close to representations of their constituent objects in hyperbolic space. This novel hyperbolic objective encourages the scene-object hypernymy among the representations by optimizing the magnitude of their norms. We show that when pretraining on the COCO and OpenImages datasets, the hyperbolic loss improves the downstream performance of several baselines across multiple datasets and tasks, including image classification, object detection, and semantic segmentation. We also show that the properties of the learned representations allow us to solve various vision tasks that involve the interaction between scenes and objects in a zero-shot fashion.

Picture That Sketch: Photorealistic Image Generation From Abstract Sketches

Subhadeep Koley · Ayan Kumar Bhunia · Aneeshan Sain · Pinaki Nath Chowdhury · Tao Xiang · Yi-Zhe Song

Given an abstract, deformed, ordinary sketch from untrained amateurs like you and me, this paper turns it into a photorealistic image - just like those shown in Fig. 1(a), all non-cherry-picked. We differ significantly from prior art in that we do not dictate an edgemap-like sketch to start with, but aim to work with abstract free-hand human sketches. In doing so, we essentially democratise the sketch-to-photo pipeline, “picturing” a sketch regardless of how good you sketch. Our contribution at the outset is a decoupled encoder-decoder training paradigm, where the decoder is a StyleGAN trained on photos only. This importantly ensures that generated results are always photorealistic. The rest is then all centred around how best to deal with the abstraction gap between sketch and photo. For that, we propose an autoregressive sketch mapper trained on sketch-photo pairs that maps a sketch to the StyleGAN latent space. We further introduce specific designs to tackle the abstract nature of human sketches, including a fine-grained discriminative loss on the back of a trained sketch-photo retrieval model, and a partial-aware sketch augmentation strategy. Finally, we showcase a few downstream tasks our generation model enables, amongst them is showing how fine-grained sketch-based image retrieval, a well-studied problem in the sketch community, can be reduced to an image (generated) to image retrieval task, surpassing state-of-the-arts. We put forward generated results in the supplementary for everyone to scrutinise. Project page:

GeneCIS: A Benchmark for General Conditional Image Similarity

Sagar Vaze · Nicolas Carion · Ishan Misra

We argue that there are many notions of ‘similarity’ and that models, like humans, should be able to adapt to these dynamically. This contrasts with most representation learning methods, supervised or self-supervised, which learn a fixed embedding function and hence implicitly assume a single notion of similarity. For instance, models trained on ImageNet are biased towards object categories, while a user might prefer the model to focus on colors, textures or specific elements in the scene. In this paper, we propose the GeneCIS (‘genesis’) benchmark, which measures models’ ability to adapt to a range of similarity conditions. Extending prior work, our benchmark is designed for zero-shot evaluation only, and hence considers an open-set of similarity conditions. We find that baselines from powerful CLIP models struggle on GeneCIS and that performance on the benchmark is only weakly correlated with ImageNet accuracy, suggesting that simply scaling existing methods is not fruitful. We further propose a simple, scalable solution based on automatically mining information from existing image-caption datasets. We find our method offers a substantial boost over the baselines on GeneCIS, and further improves zero-shot performance on related image retrieval benchmarks. In fact, though evaluated zero-shot, our model surpasses state-of-the-art supervised models on MIT-States.

Exploiting Unlabelled Photos for Stronger Fine-Grained SBIR

Aneeshan Sain · Ayan Kumar Bhunia · Subhadeep Koley · Pinaki Nath Chowdhury · Soumitri Chattopadhyay · Tao Xiang · Yi-Zhe Song

This paper advances the fine-grained sketch-based image retrieval (FG-SBIR) literature by putting forward a strong baseline that overshoots prior state-of-the art by ~11%. This is not via complicated design though, but by addressing two critical issues facing the community (i) the gold standard triplet loss does not enforce holistic latent space geometry, and (ii) there are never enough sketches to train a high accuracy model. For the former, we propose a simple modification to the standard triplet loss, that explicitly enforces separation amongst photos/sketch instances. For the latter, we put forward a novel knowledge distillation module can leverage photo data for model training. Both modules are then plugged into a novel plug-n-playable training paradigm that allows for more stable training. More specifically, for (i) we employ an intra-modal triplet loss amongst sketches to bring sketches of the same instance closer from others, and one more amongst photos to push away different photo instances while bringing closer a structurally augmented version of the same photo (offering a gain of 4-6%). To tackle (ii), we first pre-train a teacher on the large set of unlabelled photos over the aforementioned intra-modal photo triplet loss. Then we distill the contextual similarity present amongst the instances in the teacher’s embedding space to that in the student’s embedding space, by matching the distribution over inter-feature distances of respective samples in both embedding spaces (delivering a further gain of 4-5%). Apart from outperforming prior arts significantly, our model also yields satisfactory results on generalising to new classes. Project page:

Parts2Words: Learning Joint Embedding of Point Clouds and Texts by Bidirectional Matching Between Parts and Words

Chuan Tang · Xi Yang · Bojian Wu · Zhizhong Han · Yi Chang

Shape-Text matching is an important task of high-level shape understanding. Current methods mainly represent a 3D shape as multiple 2D rendered views, which obviously can not be understood well due to the structural ambiguity caused by self-occlusion in the limited number of views. To resolve this issue, we directly represent 3D shapes as point clouds, and propose to learn joint embedding of point clouds and texts by bidirectional matching between parts from shapes and words from texts. Specifically, we first segment the point clouds into parts, and then leverage optimal transport method to match parts and words in an optimized feature space, where each part is represented by aggregating features of all points within it and each word is abstracted by its contextual information. We optimize the feature space in order to enlarge the similarities between the paired training samples, while simultaneously maximizing the margin between the unpaired ones. Experiments demonstrate that our method achieves a significant improvement in accuracy over the SOTAs on multi-modal retrieval tasks under the Text2Shape dataset. Codes are available at

DeltaEdit: Exploring Text-Free Training for Text-Driven Image Manipulation

Yueming Lyu · Tianwei Lin · Fu Li · Dongliang He · Jing Dong · Tieniu Tan

Text-driven image manipulation remains challenging in training or inference flexibility. Conditional generative models depend heavily on expensive annotated training data. Meanwhile, recent frameworks, which leverage pre-trained vision-language models, are limited by either per text-prompt optimization or inference-time hyper-parameters tuning. In this work, we propose a novel framework named DeltaEdit to address these problems. Our key idea is to investigate and identify a space, namely delta image and text space that has well-aligned distribution between CLIP visual feature differences of two images and CLIP textual embedding differences of source and target texts. Based on the CLIP delta space, the DeltaEdit network is designed to map the CLIP visual features differences to the editing directions of StyleGAN at training phase. Then, in inference phase, DeltaEdit predicts the StyleGAN’s editing directions from the differences of the CLIP textual features. In this way, DeltaEdit is trained in a text-free manner. Once trained, it can well generalize to various text prompts for zero-shot inference without bells and whistles. Extensive experiments verify that our method achieves competitive performances with other state-of-the-arts, meanwhile with much better flexibility in both training and inference. Code is available at

Detecting and Grounding Multi-Modal Media Manipulation

Rui Shao · Tianxing Wu · Ziwei Liu

Misinformation has become a pressing issue. Fake media, in both visual and textual forms, is widespread on the web. While various deepfake detection and text fake news detection methods have been proposed, they are only designed for single-modality forgery based on binary classification, let alone analyzing and reasoning subtle forgery traces across different modalities. In this paper, we highlight a new research problem for multi-modal fake media, namely Detecting and Grounding Multi-Modal Media Manipulation (DGM^4). DGM^4 aims to not only detect the authenticity of multi-modal media, but also ground the manipulated content (i.e., image bounding boxes and text tokens), which requires deeper reasoning of multi-modal media manipulation. To support a large-scale investigation, we construct the first DGM^4 dataset, where image-text pairs are manipulated by various approaches, with rich annotation of diverse manipulations. Moreover, we propose a novel HierArchical Multi-modal Manipulation rEasoning tRansformer (HAMMER) to fully capture the fine-grained interaction between different modalities. HAMMER performs 1) manipulation-aware contrastive learning between two uni-modal encoders as shallow manipulation reasoning, and 2) modality-aware cross-attention by multi-modal aggregator as deep manipulation reasoning. Dedicated manipulation detection and grounding heads are integrated from shallow to deep levels based on the interacted multi-modal information. Finally, we build an extensive benchmark and set up rigorous evaluation metrics for this new research problem. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of our model; several valuable observations are also revealed to facilitate future research in multi-modal media manipulation.

Positive-Augmented Contrastive Learning for Image and Video Captioning Evaluation

Sara Sarto · Manuele Barraco · Marcella Cornia · Lorenzo Baraldi · Rita Cucchiara

The CLIP model has been recently proven to be very effective for a variety of cross-modal tasks, including the evaluation of captions generated from vision-and-language architectures. In this paper, we propose a new recipe for a contrastive-based evaluation metric for image captioning, namely Positive-Augmented Contrastive learning Score (PAC-S), that in a novel way unifies the learning of a contrastive visual-semantic space with the addition of generated images and text on curated data. Experiments spanning several datasets demonstrate that our new metric achieves the highest correlation with human judgments on both images and videos, outperforming existing reference-based metrics like CIDEr and SPICE and reference-free metrics like CLIP-Score. Finally, we test the system-level correlation of the proposed metric when considering popular image captioning approaches, and assess the impact of employing different cross-modal features. Our source code and trained models are publicly available at:

Similarity Maps for Self-Training Weakly-Supervised Phrase Grounding

Tal Shaharabany · Lior Wolf

A phrase grounding model receives an input image and a text phrase and outputs a suitable localization map. We present an effective way to refine a phrase ground model by considering self-similarity maps extracted from the latent representation of the model’s image encoder. Our main insights are that these maps resemble localization maps and that by combining such maps, one can obtain useful pseudo-labels for performing self-training. Our results surpass, by a large margin, the state-of-the-art in weakly supervised phrase grounding. A similar gap in performance is obtained for a recently proposed downstream task called WWbL, in which the input image is given without any text. Our code is available as supplementary.

Cross-Domain Image Captioning With Discriminative Finetuning

Roberto Dessì · Michele Bevilacqua · Eleonora Gualdoni · Nathanaël Carraz Rakotonirina · Francesca Franzon · Marco Baroni

Neural captioners are typically trained to mimic human-generated references without optimizing for any specific communication goal, leading to problems such as the generation of vague captions. In this paper, we show that fine-tuning an out-of-the-box neural captioner with a self-supervised discriminative communication objective helps to recover a plain, visually descriptive language that is more informative about image contents. Given a target image, the system must learn to produce a description that enables an out-of-the-box text-conditioned image retriever to identify such image among a set of candidates. We experiment with the popular ClipCap captioner, also replicating the main results with BLIP. In terms of similarity to ground-truth human descriptions, the captions emerging from discriminative finetuning lag slightly behind those generated by the non-finetuned model, when the latter is trained and tested on the same caption dataset. However, when the model is used without further tuning to generate captions for out-of-domain datasets, our discriminatively-finetuned captioner generates descriptions that resemble human references more than those produced by the same captioner without finetuning. We further show that, on the Conceptual Captions dataset, discriminatively finetuned captions are more helpful than either vanilla ClipCap captions or ground-truth captions for human annotators tasked with an image discrimination task.

EXIF As Language: Learning Cross-Modal Associations Between Images and Camera Metadata

Chenhao Zheng · Ayush Shrivastava · Andrew Owens

We learn a visual representation that captures information about the camera that recorded a given photo. To do this, we train a multimodal embedding between image patches and the EXIF metadata that cameras automatically insert into image files. Our model represents this metadata by simply converting it to text and then processing it with a transformer. The features that we learn significantly outperform other self-supervised and supervised features on downstream image forensics and calibration tasks. In particular, we successfully localize spliced image regions “zero shot” by clustering the visual embeddings for all of the patches within an image.

Uncurated Image-Text Datasets: Shedding Light on Demographic Bias

Noa Garcia · Yusuke Hirota · Yankun Wu · Yuta Nakashima

The increasing tendency to collect large and uncurated datasets to train vision-and-language models has raised concerns about fair representations. It is known that even small but manually annotated datasets, such as MSCOCO, are affected by societal bias. This problem, far from being solved, may be getting worse with data crawled from the Internet without much control. In addition, the lack of tools to analyze societal bias in big collections of images makes addressing the problem extremely challenging. Our first contribution is to annotate part of the Google Conceptual Captions dataset, widely used for training vision-and-language models, with four demographic and two contextual attributes. Our second contribution is to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the annotations, focusing on how different demographic groups are represented. Our last contribution lies in evaluating three prevailing vision-and-language tasks: image captioning, text-image CLIP embeddings, and text-to-image generation, showing that societal bias is a persistent problem in all of them.

Filtering, Distillation, and Hard Negatives for Vision-Language Pre-Training

Filip Radenovic · Abhimanyu Dubey · Abhishek Kadian · Todor Mihaylov · Simon Vandenhende · Yash Patel · Yi Wen · Vignesh Ramanathan · Dhruv Mahajan

Vision-language models trained with contrastive learning on large-scale noisy data are becoming increasingly popular for zero-shot recognition problems. In this paper we improve the following three aspects of the contrastive pre-training pipeline: dataset noise, model initialization and the training objective. First, we propose a straightforward filtering strategy titled Complexity, Action, and Text-spotting (CAT) that significantly reduces dataset size, while achieving improved performance across zero-shot vision-language tasks. Next, we propose an approach titled Concept Distillation to leverage strong unimodal representations for contrastive training that does not increase training complexity while outperforming prior work. Finally, we modify the traditional contrastive alignment objective, and propose an importance-sampling approach to up-sample the importance of hard-negatives without adding additional complexity. On an extensive zero-shot benchmark of 29 tasks, our Distilled and Hard-negative Training (DiHT) approach improves on 20 tasks compared to the baseline. Furthermore, for few-shot linear probing, we propose a novel approach that bridges the gap between zero-shot and few-shot performance, substantially improving over prior work. Models are available at

Turning a CLIP Model Into a Scene Text Detector

Wenwen Yu · Yuliang Liu · Wei Hua · Deqiang Jiang · Bo Ren · Xiang Bai

The recent large-scale Contrastive Language-Image Pretraining (CLIP) model has shown great potential in various downstream tasks via leveraging the pretrained vision and language knowledge. Scene text, which contains rich textual and visual information, has an inherent connection with a model like CLIP. Recently, pretraining approaches based on vision language models have made effective progresses in the field of text detection. In contrast to these works, this paper proposes a new method, termed TCM, focusing on Turning the CLIP Model directly for text detection without pretraining process. We demonstrate the advantages of the proposed TCM as follows: (1) The underlying principle of our framework can be applied to improve existing scene text detector. (2) It facilitates the few-shot training capability of existing methods, e.g., by using 10% of labeled data, we significantly improve the performance of the baseline method with an average of 22% in terms of the F-measure on 4 benchmarks. (3) By turning the CLIP model into existing scene text detection methods, we further achieve promising domain adaptation ability. The code will be publicly released at

ScanDMM: A Deep Markov Model of Scanpath Prediction for 360° Images

Xiangjie Sui · Yuming Fang · Hanwei Zhu · Shiqi Wang · Zhou Wang

Scanpath prediction for 360° images aims to produce dynamic gaze behaviors based on the human visual perception mechanism. Most existing scanpath prediction methods for 360° images do not give a complete treatment of the time-dependency when predicting human scanpath, resulting in inferior performance and poor generalizability. In this paper, we present a scanpath prediction method for 360° images by designing a novel Deep Markov Model (DMM) architecture, namely ScanDMM. We propose a semantics-guided transition function to learn the nonlinear dynamics of time-dependent attentional landscape. Moreover, a state initialization strategy is proposed by considering the starting point of viewing, enabling the model to learn the dynamics with the correct “launcher”. We further demonstrate that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance on four 360° image databases, and exhibit its generalizability by presenting two applications of applying scanpath prediction models to other visual tasks - saliency detection and image quality assessment, expecting to provide profound insights into these fields.

CrOC: Cross-View Online Clustering for Dense Visual Representation Learning

Thomas Stegmüller · Tim Lebailly · Behzad Bozorgtabar · Tinne Tuytelaars · Jean-Philippe Thiran

Learning dense visual representations without labels is an arduous task and more so from scene-centric data. We propose to tackle this challenging problem by proposing a Cross-view consistency objective with an Online Clustering mechanism (CrOC) to discover and segment the semantics of the views. In the absence of hand-crafted priors, the resulting method is more generalizable and does not require a cumbersome pre-processing step. More importantly, the clustering algorithm conjointly operates on the features of both views, thereby elegantly bypassing the issue of content not represented in both views and the ambiguous matching of objects from one crop to the other. We demonstrate excellent performance on linear and unsupervised segmentation transfer tasks on various datasets and similarly for video object segmentation. Our code and pre-trained models are publicly available at

PLA: Language-Driven Open-Vocabulary 3D Scene Understanding

Runyu Ding · Jihan Yang · Chuhui Xue · Wenqing Zhang · Song Bai · Xiaojuan Qi

Open-vocabulary scene understanding aims to localize and recognize unseen categories beyond the annotated label space. The recent breakthrough of 2D open-vocabulary perception is largely driven by Internet-scale paired image-text data with rich vocabulary concepts. However, this success cannot be directly transferred to 3D scenarios due to the inaccessibility of large-scale 3D-text pairs. To this end, we propose to distill knowledge encoded in pre-trained vision-language (VL) foundation models through captioning multi-view images from 3D, which allows explicitly associating 3D and semantic-rich captions. Further, to foster coarse-to-fine visual-semantic representation learning from captions, we design hierarchical 3D-caption pairs, leveraging geometric constraints between 3D scenes and multi-view images. Finally, by employing contrastive learning, the model learns language-aware embeddings that connect 3D and text for open-vocabulary tasks. Our method not only remarkably outperforms baseline methods by 25.8% ~ 44.7% hIoU and 14.5% ~ 50.4% hAP_{50} in open-vocabulary semantic and instance segmentation, but also shows robust transferability on challenging zero-shot domain transfer tasks. See the project website at

CLIP2Scene: Towards Label-Efficient 3D Scene Understanding by CLIP

Runnan Chen · Youquan Liu · Lingdong Kong · Xinge Zhu · Yuexin Ma · Yikang Li · Yuenan Hou · Yu Qiao · Wenping Wang

Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP) achieves promising results in 2D zero-shot and few-shot learning. Despite the impressive performance in 2D, applying CLIP to help the learning in 3D scene understanding has yet to be explored. In this paper, we make the first attempt to investigate how CLIP knowledge benefits 3D scene understanding. We propose CLIP2Scene, a simple yet effective framework that transfers CLIP knowledge from 2D image-text pre-trained models to a 3D point cloud network. We show that the pre-trained 3D network yields impressive performance on various downstream tasks, i.e., annotation-free and fine-tuning with labelled data for semantic segmentation. Specifically, built upon CLIP, we design a Semantic-driven Cross-modal Contrastive Learning framework that pre-trains a 3D network via semantic and spatial-temporal consistency regularization. For the former, we first leverage CLIP’s text semantics to select the positive and negative point samples and then employ the contrastive loss to train the 3D network. In terms of the latter, we force the consistency between the temporally coherent point cloud features and their corresponding image features. We conduct experiments on SemanticKITTI, nuScenes, and ScanNet. For the first time, our pre-trained network achieves annotation-free 3D semantic segmentation with 20.8% and 25.08% mIoU on nuScenes and ScanNet, respectively. When fine-tuned with 1% or 100% labelled data, our method significantly outperforms other self-supervised methods, with improvements of 8% and 1% mIoU, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate the generalizability for handling cross-domain datasets. Code is publicly available.

CORA: Adapting CLIP for Open-Vocabulary Detection With Region Prompting and Anchor Pre-Matching

Xiaoshi Wu · Feng Zhu · Rui Zhao · Hongsheng Li

Open-vocabulary detection (OVD) is an object detection task aiming at detecting objects from novel categories beyond the base categories on which the detector is trained. Recent OVD methods rely on large-scale visual-language pre-trained models, such as CLIP, for recognizing novel objects. We identify the two core obstacles that need to be tackled when incorporating these models into detector training: (1) the distribution mismatch that happens when applying a VL-model trained on whole images to region recognition tasks; (2) the difficulty of localizing objects of unseen classes. To overcome these obstacles, we propose CORA, a DETR-style framework that adapts CLIP for Open-vocabulary detection by Region prompting and Anchor pre-matching. Region prompting mitigates the whole-to-region distribution gap by prompting the region features of the CLIP-based region classifier. Anchor pre-matching helps learning generalizable object localization by a class-aware matching mechanism. We evaluate CORA on the COCO OVD benchmark, where we achieve 41.7 AP50 on novel classes, which outperforms the previous SOTA by 2.4 AP50 even without resorting to extra training data. When extra training data is available, we train CORA+ on both ground-truth base-category annotations and additional pseudo bounding box labels computed by CORA. CORA+ achieves 43.1 AP50 on the COCO OVD benchmark and 28.1 box APr on the LVIS OVD benchmark. The code is available at

Open-Vocabulary Attribute Detection

María A. Bravo · Sudhanshu Mittal · Simon Ging · Thomas Brox

Vision-language modeling has enabled open-vocabulary tasks where predictions can be queried using any text prompt in a zero-shot manner. Existing open-vocabulary tasks focus on object classes, whereas research on object attributes is limited due to the lack of a reliable attribute-focused evaluation benchmark. This paper introduces the Open-Vocabulary Attribute Detection (OVAD) task and the corresponding OVAD benchmark. The objective of the novel task and benchmark is to probe object-level attribute information learned by vision-language models. To this end, we created a clean and densely annotated test set covering 117 attribute classes on the 80 object classes of MS COCO. It includes positive and negative annotations, which enables open-vocabulary evaluation. Overall, the benchmark consists of 1.4 million annotations. For reference, we provide a first baseline method for open-vocabulary attribute detection. Moreover, we demonstrate the benchmark’s value by studying the attribute detection performance of several foundation models.

Learning To Detect and Segment for Open Vocabulary Object Detection

Tao Wang

Open vocabulary object detection has been greately advanced by the recent development of vision-language pre-trained model, which helps recognizing the novel objects with only semantic categories. The prior works mainly focus on knowledge transferring to the object proposal classification and employ class-agnostic box and mask prediction. In this work, we propose CondHead, a principled dynamic network design to better generalize the box regression and mask segmentation for open vocabulary setting. The core idea is to conditionally parametrize the network heads on semantic embedding and thus the model is guided with class-specific knowledge to better detect novel categories. Specifically, CondHead is composed of two streams of network heads, the dynamically aggregated heads and dynamically generated heads. The former is instantiated with a set of static heads that are conditionally aggregated, these heads are optimized as experts and are expected to learn sophisticated prediction. The Latter is instantiated with dynamically generated parameters and encodes general class-specific information. With such conditional design, the detection model is bridged by the semantic embedding to offer strongly generalizable class-wise box and mask prediction. Our method brings significant improvement to the prior state-of-the-art open vocabulary object detection methods with very minor overhead, e.g., it surpasses a RegionClip model by 3.0 detection AP on novel categories, with only 1.1% more computation.

Open-Vocabulary Semantic Segmentation With Mask-Adapted CLIP

Feng Liang · Bichen Wu · Xiaoliang Dai · Kunpeng Li · Yinan Zhao · Hang Zhang · Peizhao Zhang · Peter Vajda · Diana Marculescu

Open-vocabulary semantic segmentation aims to segment an image into semantic regions according to text descriptions, which may not have been seen during training. Recent two-stage methods first generate class-agnostic mask proposals and then leverage pre-trained vision-language models, e.g., CLIP, to classify masked regions. We identify the performance bottleneck of this paradigm to be the pre-trained CLIP model, since it does not perform well on masked images. To address this, we propose to finetune CLIP on a collection of masked image regions and their corresponding text descriptions. We collect training data by mining an existing image-caption dataset (e.g., COCO Captions), using CLIP to match masked image regions to nouns in the image captions. Compared with the more precise and manually annotated segmentation labels with fixed classes (e.g., COCO-Stuff), we find our noisy but diverse dataset can better retain CLIP’s generalization ability. Along with finetuning the entire model, we utilize the “blank” areas in masked images using a method we dub mask prompt tuning. Experiments demonstrate mask prompt tuning brings significant improvement without modifying any weights of CLIP, and it can further improve a fully finetuned model. In particular, when trained on COCO and evaluated on ADE20K-150, our best model achieves 29.6% mIoU, which is +8.5% higher than the previous state-of-the-art. For the first time, open-vocabulary generalist models match the performance of supervised specialist models in 2017 without dataset-specific adaptations.

A Simple Framework for Text-Supervised Semantic Segmentation

Muyang Yi · Quan Cui · Hao Wu · Cheng Yang · Osamu Yoshie · Hongtao Lu

Text-supervised semantic segmentation is a novel research topic that allows semantic segments to emerge with image-text contrasting. However, pioneering methods could be subject to specifically designed network architectures. This paper shows that a vanilla contrastive language-image pre-training (CLIP) model is an effective text-supervised semantic segmentor by itself. First, we reveal that a vanilla CLIP is inferior to localization and segmentation due to its optimization being driven by densely aligning visual and language representations. Second, we propose the locality-driven alignment (LoDA) to address the problem, where CLIP optimization is driven by sparsely aligning local representations. Third, we propose a simple segmentation (SimSeg) framework. LoDA and SimSeg jointly ameliorate a vanilla CLIP to produce impressive semantic segmentation results. Our method outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods on PASCAL VOC 2012, PASCAL Context and COCO datasets by large margins. Code and models are available at

GAPartNet: Cross-Category Domain-Generalizable Object Perception and Manipulation via Generalizable and Actionable Parts

Haoran Geng · Helin Xu · Chengyang Zhao · Chao Xu · Li Yi · Siyuan Huang · He Wang

For years, researchers have been devoted to generalizable object perception and manipulation, where cross-category generalizability is highly desired yet underexplored. In this work, we propose to learn such cross-category skills via Generalizable and Actionable Parts (GAParts). By identifying and defining 9 GAPart classes (lids, handles, etc.) in 27 object categories, we construct a large-scale part-centric interactive dataset, GAPartNet, where we provide rich, part-level annotations (semantics, poses) for 8,489 part instances on 1,166 objects. Based on GAPartNet, we investigate three cross-category tasks: part segmentation, part pose estimation, and part-based object manipulation. Given the significant domain gaps between seen and unseen object categories, we propose a robust 3D segmentation method from the perspective of domain generalization by integrating adversarial learning techniques. Our method outperforms all existing methods by a large margin, no matter on seen or unseen categories. Furthermore, with part segmentation and pose estimation results, we leverage the GAPart pose definition to design part-based manipulation heuristics that can generalize well to unseen object categories in both the simulator and the real world.

GeoLayoutLM: Geometric Pre-Training for Visual Information Extraction

Chuwei Luo · Changxu Cheng · Qi Zheng · Cong Yao

Visual information extraction (VIE) plays an important role in Document Intelligence. Generally, it is divided into two tasks: semantic entity recognition (SER) and relation extraction (RE). Recently, pre-trained models for documents have achieved substantial progress in VIE, particularly in SER. However, most of the existing models learn the geometric representation in an implicit way, which has been found insufficient for the RE task since geometric information is especially crucial for RE. Moreover, we reveal another factor that limits the performance of RE lies in the objective gap between the pre-training phase and the fine-tuning phase for RE. To tackle these issues, we propose in this paper a multi-modal framework, named GeoLayoutLM, for VIE. GeoLayoutLM explicitly models the geometric relations in pre-training, which we call geometric pre-training. Geometric pre-training is achieved by three specially designed geometry-related pre-training tasks. Additionally, novel relation heads, which are pre-trained by the geometric pre-training tasks and fine-tuned for RE, are elaborately designed to enrich and enhance the feature representation. According to extensive experiments on standard VIE benchmarks, GeoLayoutLM achieves highly competitive scores in the SER task and significantly outperforms the previous state-of-the-arts for RE (e.g.,the F1 score of RE on FUNSD is boosted from 80.35% to 89.45%).

Self-Supervised Image-to-Point Distillation via Semantically Tolerant Contrastive Loss

Anas Mahmoud · Jordan S. K. Hu · Tianshu Kuai · Ali Harakeh · Liam Paull · Steven L. Waslander

An effective framework for learning 3D representations for perception tasks is distilling rich self-supervised image features via contrastive learning. However, image-to-point representation learning for autonomous driving datasets faces two main challenges: 1) the abundance of self-similarity, which results in the contrastive losses pushing away semantically similar point and image regions and thus disturbing the local semantic structure of the learned representations, and 2) severe class imbalance as pretraining gets dominated by over-represented classes. We propose to alleviate the self-similarity problem through a novel semantically tolerant image-to-point contrastive loss that takes into consideration the semantic distance between positive and negative image regions to minimize contrasting semantically similar point and image regions. Additionally, we address class imbalance by designing a class-agnostic balanced loss that approximates the degree of class imbalance through an aggregate sample-to-samples semantic similarity measure. We demonstrate that our semantically-tolerant contrastive loss with class balancing improves state-of-the-art 2D-to-3D representation learning in all evaluation settings on 3D semantic segmentation. Our method consistently outperforms state-of-the-art 2D-to-3D representation learning frameworks across a wide range of 2D self-supervised pretrained models.

Generative Semantic Segmentation

Jiaqi Chen · Jiachen Lu · Xiatian Zhu · Li Zhang

We present Generative Semantic Segmentation (GSS), a generative learning approach for semantic segmentation. Uniquely, we cast semantic segmentation as an image-conditioned mask generation problem. This is achieved by replacing the conventional per-pixel discriminative learning with a latent prior learning process. Specifically, we model the variational posterior distribution of latent variables given the segmentation mask. To that end, the segmentation mask is expressed with a special type of image (dubbed as maskige). This posterior distribution allows to generate segmentation masks unconditionally. To achieve semantic segmentation on a given image, we further introduce a conditioning network. It is optimized by minimizing the divergence between the posterior distribution of maskige (i.e., segmentation masks) and the latent prior distribution of input training images. Extensive experiments on standard benchmarks show that our GSS can perform competitively to prior art alternatives in the standard semantic segmentation setting, whilst achieving a new state of the art in the more challenging cross-domain setting.

MISC210K: A Large-Scale Dataset for Multi-Instance Semantic Correspondence

Yixuan Sun · Yiwen Huang · Haijing Guo · Yuzhou Zhao · Runmin Wu · Yizhou Yu · Weifeng Ge · Wenqiang Zhang

Semantic correspondence have built up a new way for object recognition. However current single-object matching schema can be hard for discovering commonalities for a category and far from the real-world recognition tasks. To fill this gap, we design the multi-instance semantic correspondence task which aims at constructing the correspondence between multiple objects in an image pair. To support this task, we build a multi-instance semantic correspondence (MISC) dataset from COCO Detection 2017 task called MISC210K. We construct our dataset as three steps: (1) category selection and data cleaning; (2) keypoint design based on 3D models and object description rules; (3) human-machine collaborative annotation. Following these steps, we select 34 classes of objects with 4,812 challenging images annotated via a well designed semi-automatic workflow, and finally acquire 218,179 image pairs with instance masks and instance-level keypoint pairs annotated. We design a dual-path collaborative learning pipeline to train instance-level co-segmentation task and fine-grained level correspondence task together. Benchmark evaluation and further ablation results with detailed analysis are provided with three future directions proposed. Our project is available on

MIANet: Aggregating Unbiased Instance and General Information for Few-Shot Semantic Segmentation

Yong Yang · Qiong Chen · Yuan Feng · Tianlin Huang

Existing few-shot segmentation methods are based on the meta-learning strategy and extract instance knowledge from a support set and then apply the knowledge to segment target objects in a query set. However, the extracted knowledge is insufficient to cope with the variable intra-class differences since the knowledge is obtained from a few samples in the support set. To address the problem, we propose a multi-information aggregation network (MIANet) that effectively leverages the general knowledge, i.e., semantic word embeddings, and instance information for accurate segmentation. Specifically, in MIANet, a general information module (GIM) is proposed to extract a general class prototype from word embeddings as a supplement to instance information. To this end, we design a triplet loss that treats the general class prototype as an anchor and samples positive-negative pairs from local features in the support set. The calculated triplet loss can transfer semantic similarities among language identities from a word embedding space to a visual representation space. To alleviate the model biasing towards the seen training classes and to obtain multi-scale information, we then introduce a non-parametric hierarchical prior module (HPM) to generate unbiased instance-level information via calculating the pixel-level similarity between the support and query image features. Finally, an information fusion module (IFM) combines the general and instance information to make predictions for the query image. Extensive experiments on PASCAL-5i and COCO-20i show that MIANet yields superior performance and set a new state-of-the-art. Code is available at

PACO: Parts and Attributes of Common Objects

Vignesh Ramanathan · Anmol Kalia · Vladan Petrovic · Yi Wen · Baixue Zheng · Baishan Guo · Rui Wang · Aaron Marquez · Rama Kovvuri · Abhishek Kadian · Amir Mousavi · Yiwen Song · Abhimanyu Dubey · Dhruv Mahajan

Object models are gradually progressing from predicting just category labels to providing detailed descriptions of object instances. This motivates the need for large datasets which go beyond traditional object masks and provide richer annotations such as part masks and attributes. Hence, we introduce PACO: Parts and Attributes of Common Objects. It spans 75 object categories, 456 object-part categories and 55 attributes across image (LVIS) and video (Ego4D) datasets. We provide 641K part masks annotated across 260K object boxes, with roughly half of them exhaustively annotated with attributes as well. We design evaluation metrics and provide benchmark results for three tasks on the dataset: part mask segmentation, object and part attribute prediction and zero-shot instance detection. Dataset, models, and code are open-sourced at

PartDistillation: Learning Parts From Instance Segmentation

Jang Hyun Cho · Philipp Krähenbühl · Vignesh Ramanathan

We present a scalable framework to learn part segmentation from object instance labels. State-of-the-art instance segmentation models contain a surprising amount of part information. However, much of this information is hidden from plain view. For each object instance, the part information is noisy, inconsistent, and incomplete. PartDistillation transfers the part information of an instance segmentation model into a part segmentation model through self-supervised self-training on a large dataset. The resulting segmentation model is robust, accurate, and generalizes well. We evaluate the model on various part segmentation datasets. Our model outperforms supervised part segmentation in zero-shot generalization performance by a large margin. Our model outperforms when finetuned on target datasets compared to supervised counterpart and other baselines especially in few-shot regime. Finally, our model provides a wider coverage of rare parts when evaluated over 10K object classes. Code is at

ACSeg: Adaptive Conceptualization for Unsupervised Semantic Segmentation

Kehan Li · Zhennan Wang · Zesen Cheng · Runyi Yu · Yian Zhao · Guoli Song · Chang Liu · Li Yuan · Jie Chen

Recently, self-supervised large-scale visual pre-training models have shown great promise in representing pixel-level semantic relationships, significantly promoting the development of unsupervised dense prediction tasks, e.g., unsupervised semantic segmentation (USS). The extracted relationship among pixel-level representations typically contains rich class-aware information that semantically identical pixel embeddings in the representation space gather together to form sophisticated concepts. However, leveraging the learned models to ascertain semantically consistent pixel groups or regions in the image is non-trivial since over/ under-clustering overwhelms the conceptualization procedure under various semantic distributions of different images. In this work, we investigate the pixel-level semantic aggregation in self-supervised ViT pre-trained models as image Segmentation and propose the Adaptive Conceptualization approach for USS, termed ACSeg. Concretely, we explicitly encode concepts into learnable prototypes and design the Adaptive Concept Generator (ACG), which adaptively maps these prototypes to informative concepts for each image. Meanwhile, considering the scene complexity of different images, we propose the modularity loss to optimize ACG independent of the concept number based on estimating the intensity of pixel pairs belonging to the same concept. Finally, we turn the USS task into classifying the discovered concepts in an unsupervised manner. Extensive experiments with state-of-the-art results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ACSeg.

Reliability in Semantic Segmentation: Are We on the Right Track?

Pau de Jorge · Riccardo Volpi · Philip H.S. Torr · Grégory Rogez

Motivated by the increasing popularity of transformers in computer vision, in recent times there has been a rapid development of novel architectures. While in-domain performance follows a constant, upward trend, properties like robustness or uncertainty estimation are less explored -leaving doubts about advances in model reliability. Studies along these axes exist, but they are mainly limited to classification models. In contrast, we carry out a study on semantic segmentation, a relevant task for many real-world applications where model reliability is paramount. We analyze a broad variety of models, spanning from older ResNet-based architectures to novel transformers and assess their reliability based on four metrics: robustness, calibration, misclassification detection and out-of-distribution (OOD) detection. We find that while recent models are significantly more robust, they are not overall more reliable in terms of uncertainty estimation. We further explore methods that can come to the rescue and show that improving calibration can also help with other uncertainty metrics such as misclassification or OOD detection. This is the first study on modern segmentation models focused on both robustness and uncertainty estimation and we hope it will help practitioners and researchers interested in this fundamental vision task.

Rethinking the Correlation in Few-Shot Segmentation: A Buoys View

Yuan Wang · Rui Sun · Tianzhu Zhang

Few-shot segmentation (FSS) aims to segment novel objects in a given query image with only a few annotated support images. However, most previous best-performing methods, whether prototypical learning methods or affinity learning methods, neglect to alleviate false matches caused by their own pixel-level correlation. In this work, we rethink how to mitigate the false matches from the perspective of representative reference features (referred to as buoys), and propose a novel adaptive buoys correlation (ABC) network to rectify direct pairwise pixel-level correlation, including a buoys mining module and an adaptive correlation module. The proposed ABC enjoys several merits. First, to learn the buoys well without any correspondence supervision, we customize the buoys mining module according to the three characteristics of representativeness, task awareness and resilience. Second, the proposed adaptive correlation module is responsible for further endowing buoy-correlation-based pixel matching with an adaptive ability. Extensive experimental results with two different backbones on two challenging benchmarks demonstrate that our ABC, as a general plugin, achieves consistent improvements over several leading methods on both 1-shot and 5-shot settings.

SIM: Semantic-Aware Instance Mask Generation for Box-Supervised Instance Segmentation

Ruihuang Li · Chenhang He · Yabin Zhang · Shuai Li · Liyi Chen · Lei Zhang

Weakly supervised instance segmentation using only bounding box annotations has recently attracted much research attention. Most of the current efforts leverage low-level image features as extra supervision without explicitly exploiting the high-level semantic information of the objects, which will become ineffective when the foreground objects have similar appearances to the background or other objects nearby. We propose a new box-supervised instance segmentation approach by developing a Semantic-aware Instance Mask (SIM) generation paradigm. Instead of heavily relying on local pair-wise affinities among neighboring pixels, we construct a group of category-wise feature centroids as prototypes to identify foreground objects and assign them semantic-level pseudo labels. Considering that the semantic-aware prototypes cannot distinguish different instances of the same semantics, we propose a self-correction mechanism to rectify the falsely activated regions while enhancing the correct ones. Furthermore, to handle the occlusions between objects, we tailor the Copy-Paste operation for the weakly-supervised instance segmentation task to augment challenging training data. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the superiority of our proposed SIM approach over other state-of-the-art methods. The source code:

Endpoints Weight Fusion for Class Incremental Semantic Segmentation

Jia-Wen Xiao · Chang-Bin Zhang · Jiekang Feng · Xialei Liu · Joost van de Weijer · Ming-Ming Cheng

Class incremental semantic segmentation (CISS) focuses on alleviating catastrophic forgetting to improve discrimination. Previous work mainly exploit regularization (e.g., knowledge distillation) to maintain previous knowledge in the current model. However, distillation alone often yields limited gain to the model since only the representations of old and new models are restricted to be consistent. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective method to obtain a model with strong memory of old knowledge, named Endpoints Weight Fusion (EWF). In our method, the model containing old knowledge is fused with the model retaining new knowledge in a dynamic fusion manner, strengthening the memory of old classes in ever-changing distributions. In addition, we analyze the relation between our fusion strategy and a popular moving average technique EMA, which reveals why our method is more suitable for class-incremental learning. To facilitate parameter fusion with closer distance in the parameter space, we use distillation to enhance the optimization process. Furthermore, we conduct experiments on two widely used datasets, achieving the state-of-the-art performance.

Incrementer: Transformer for Class-Incremental Semantic Segmentation With Knowledge Distillation Focusing on Old Class

Chao Shang · Hongliang Li · Fanman Meng · Qingbo Wu · Heqian Qiu · Lanxiao Wang

Class-incremental semantic segmentation aims to incrementally learn new classes while maintaining the capability to segment old ones, and suffers catastrophic forgetting since the old-class labels are unavailable. Most existing methods are based on convolutional networks and prevent forgetting through knowledge distillation, which (1) need to add additional convolutional layers to predict new classes, and (2) ignore to distinguish different regions corresponding to old and new classes during knowledge distillation and roughly distill all the features, thus limiting the learning of new classes. Based on the above observations, we propose a new transformer framework for class-incremental semantic segmentation, dubbed Incrementer, which only needs to add new class tokens to the transformer decoder for new-class learning. Based on the Incrementer, we propose a new knowledge distillation scheme that focuses on the distillation in the old-class regions, which reduces the constraints of the old model on the new-class learning, thus improving the plasticity. Moreover, we propose a class deconfusion strategy to alleviate the overfitting to new classes and the confusion of similar classes. Our method is simple and effective, and extensive experiments show that our method outperforms the SOTAs by a large margin (5~15 absolute points boosts on both Pascal VOC and ADE20k). We hope that our Incrementer can serve as a new strong pipeline for class-incremental semantic segmentation.

Continuous Pseudo-Label Rectified Domain Adaptive Semantic Segmentation With Implicit Neural Representations

Rui Gong · Qin Wang · Martin Danelljan · Dengxin Dai · Luc Van Gool

Unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) for semantic segmentation aims at improving the model performance on the unlabeled target domain by leveraging a labeled source domain. Existing approaches have achieved impressive progress by utilizing pseudo-labels on the unlabeled target-domain images. Yet the low-quality pseudo-labels, arising from the domain discrepancy, inevitably hinder the adaptation. This calls for effective and accurate approaches to estimating the reliability of the pseudo-labels, in order to rectify them. In this paper, we propose to estimate the rectification values of the predicted pseudo-labels with implicit neural representations. We view the rectification value as a signal defined over the continuous spatial domain. Taking an image coordinate and the nearby deep features as inputs, the rectification value at a given coordinate is predicted as an output. This allows us to achieve high-resolution and detailed rectification values estimation, important for accurate pseudo-label generation at mask boundaries in particular. The rectified pseudo-labels are then leveraged in our rectification-aware mixture model (RMM) to be learned end-to-end and help the adaptation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on different UDA benchmarks, including synthetic-to-real and day-to-night. Our approach achieves superior results compared to state-of-the-art. The implementation is available at

Revisiting Weak-to-Strong Consistency in Semi-Supervised Semantic Segmentation

Lihe Yang · Lei Qi · Litong Feng · Wayne Zhang · Yinghuan Shi

In this work, we revisit the weak-to-strong consistency framework, popularized by FixMatch from semi-supervised classification, where the prediction of a weakly perturbed image serves as supervision for its strongly perturbed version. Intriguingly, we observe that such a simple pipeline already achieves competitive results against recent advanced works, when transferred to our segmentation scenario. Its success heavily relies on the manual design of strong data augmentations, however, which may be limited and inadequate to explore a broader perturbation space. Motivated by this, we propose an auxiliary feature perturbation stream as a supplement, leading to an expanded perturbation space. On the other, to sufficiently probe original image-level augmentations, we present a dual-stream perturbation technique, enabling two strong views to be simultaneously guided by a common weak view. Consequently, our overall Unified Dual-Stream Perturbations approach (UniMatch) surpasses all existing methods significantly across all evaluation protocols on the Pascal, Cityscapes, and COCO benchmarks. Its superiority is also demonstrated in remote sensing interpretation and medical image analysis. We hope our reproduced FixMatch and our results can inspire more future works. Code and logs are available at

Discriminative Co-Saliency and Background Mining Transformer for Co-Salient Object Detection

Long Li · Junwei Han · Ni Zhang · Nian Liu · Salman Khan · Hisham Cholakkal · Rao Muhammad Anwer · Fahad Shahbaz Khan

Most previous co-salient object detection works mainly focus on extracting co-salient cues via mining the consistency relations across images while ignoring the explicit exploration of background regions. In this paper, we propose a Discriminative co-saliency and background Mining Transformer framework (DMT) based on several economical multi-grained correlation modules to explicitly mine both co-saliency and background information and effectively model their discrimination. Specifically, we first propose region-to-region correlation modules to economically model inter-image relations for pixel-wise segmentation features. Then, we use two types of predefined tokens to mine co-saliency and background information via our proposed contrast-induced pixel-to-token and co-saliency token-to-token correlation modules. We also design a token-guided feature refinement module to enhance the discriminability of the segmentation features under the guidance of the learned tokens. We perform iterative mutual promotion for the segmentation feature extraction and token construction. Experimental results on three benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method. The source code is available at:

Texture-Guided Saliency Distilling for Unsupervised Salient Object Detection

Huajun Zhou · Bo Qiao · Lingxiao Yang · Jianhuang Lai · Xiaohua Xie

Deep Learning-based Unsupervised Salient Object Detection (USOD) mainly relies on the noisy saliency pseudo labels that have been generated from traditional handcraft methods or pre-trained networks. To cope with the noisy labels problem, a class of methods focus on only easy samples with reliable labels but ignore valuable knowledge in hard samples. In this paper, we propose a novel USOD method to mine rich and accurate saliency knowledge from both easy and hard samples. First, we propose a Confidence-aware Saliency Distilling (CSD) strategy that scores samples conditioned on samples’ confidences, which guides the model to distill saliency knowledge from easy samples to hard samples progressively. Second, we propose a Boundary-aware Texture Matching (BTM) strategy to refine the boundaries of noisy labels by matching the textures around the predicted boundaries. Extensive experiments on RGB, RGB-D, RGB-T, and video SOD benchmarks prove that our method achieves state-of-the-art USOD performance. Code is available at

An Erudite Fine-Grained Visual Classification Model

Dongliang Chang · Yujun Tong · Ruoyi DU · Timothy Hospedales · Yi-Zhe Song · Zhanyu Ma

Current fine-grained visual classification (FGVC) models are isolated. In practice, we first need to identify the coarse-grained label of an object, then select the corresponding FGVC model for recognition. This hinders the application of the FGVC algorithm in real-life scenarios. In this paper, we propose an erudite FGVC model jointly trained by several different datasets, which can efficiently and accurately predict an object’s fine-grained label across the combined label space. We found through a pilot study that positive and negative transfers co-occur when different datasets are mixed for training, i.e., the knowledge from other datasets is not always useful. Therefore, we first propose a feature disentanglement module and a feature re-fusion module to reduce negative transfer and boost positive transfer between different datasets. In detail, we reduce negative transfer by decoupling the deep features through many dataset-specific feature extractors. Subsequently, these are channel-wise re-fused to facilitate positive transfer. Finally, we propose a meta-learning based dataset-agnostic spatial attention layer to take full advantage of the multi-dataset training data, given that localisation is dataset-agnostic between different datasets. Experimental results across 11 different mixed-datasets built on four different FGVC datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Furthermore, the proposed method can be easily combined with existing FGVC methods to obtain state-of-the-art results.

Dynamic Graph Learning With Content-Guided Spatial-Frequency Relation Reasoning for Deepfake Detection

Yuan Wang · Kun Yu · Chen Chen · Xiyuan Hu · Silong Peng

With the springing up of face synthesis techniques, it is prominent in need to develop powerful face forgery detection methods due to security concerns. Some existing methods attempt to employ auxiliary frequency-aware information combined with CNN backbones to discover the forged clues. Due to the inadequate information interaction with image content, the extracted frequency features are thus spatially irrelavant, struggling to generalize well on increasingly realistic counterfeit types. To address this issue, we propose a Spatial-Frequency Dynamic Graph method to exploit the relation-aware features in spatial and frequency domains via dynamic graph learning. To this end, we introduce three well-designed components: 1) Content-guided Adaptive Frequency Extraction module to mine the content-adaptive forged frequency clues. 2) Multiple Domains Attention Map Learning module to enrich the spatial-frequency contextual features with multiscale attention maps. 3) Dynamic Graph Spatial-Frequency Feature Fusion Network to explore the high-order relation of spatial and frequency features. Extensive experiments on several benchmark show that our proposed method sustainedly exceeds the state-of-the-arts by a considerable margin.

ScaleDet: A Scalable Multi-Dataset Object Detector

Yanbei Chen · Manchen Wang · Abhay Mittal · Zhenlin Xu · Paolo Favaro · Joseph Tighe · Davide Modolo

Multi-dataset training provides a viable solution for exploiting heterogeneous large-scale datasets without extra annotation cost. In this work, we propose a scalable multi-dataset detector (ScaleDet) that can scale up its generalization across datasets when increasing the number of training datasets. Unlike existing multi-dataset learners that mostly rely on manual relabelling efforts or sophisticated optimizations to unify labels across datasets, we introduce a simple yet scalable formulation to derive a unified semantic label space for multi-dataset training. ScaleDet is trained by visual-textual alignment to learn the label assignment with label semantic similarities across datasets. Once trained, ScaleDet can generalize well on any given upstream and downstream datasets with seen and unseen classes. We conduct extensive experiments using LVIS, COCO, Objects365, OpenImages as upstream datasets, and 13 datasets from Object Detection in the Wild (ODinW) as downstream datasets. Our results show that ScaleDet achieves compelling strong model performance with an mAP of 50.7 on LVIS, 58.8 on COCO, 46.8 on Objects365, 76.2 on OpenImages, and 71.8 on ODinW, surpassing state-of-the-art detectors with the same backbone.

Multi-Centroid Task Descriptor for Dynamic Class Incremental Inference

Tenghao Cai · Zhizhong Zhang · Xin Tan · Yanyun Qu · Guannan Jiang · Chengjie Wang · Yuan Xie

Incremental learning could be roughly divided into two categories, i.e., class- and task-incremental learning. The main difference is whether the task ID is given during evaluation. In this paper, we show this task information is indeed a strong prior knowledge, which will bring significant improvement over class-incremental learning baseline, e.g., DER. Based on this observation, we propose a gate network to predict the task ID for class incremental inference. This is challenging as there is no explicit semantic relationship between categories in the concept of task. Therefore, we propose a multi-centroid task descriptor by assuming the data within a task can form multiple clusters. The cluster centers are optimized by pulling relevant sample-centroid pairs while pushing others away, which ensures that there is at least one centroid close to a given sample. To select relevant pairs, we use class prototypes as proxies and solve a bipartite matching problem, making the task descriptor representative yet not degenerate to uni-modal. As a result, our dynamic inference network is trained independently of baseline and provides a flexible, efficient solution to distinguish between tasks. Extensive experiments show our approach achieves state-of-the-art results, e.g., we achieve 72.41% average accuracy on CIFAR100-B0S50, outperforming DER by 3.40%.

Matching Is Not Enough: A Two-Stage Framework for Category-Agnostic Pose Estimation

Min Shi · Zihao Huang · Xianzheng Ma · Xiaowei Hu · Zhiguo Cao

Category-agnostic pose estimation (CAPE) aims to predict keypoints for arbitrary categories given support images with keypoint annotations. Existing approaches match the keypoints across the image for localization. However, such a one-stage matching paradigm shows inferior accuracy: the prediction heavily relies on the matching results, which can be noisy due to the open set nature in CAPE. For example, two mirror-symmetric keypoints (e.g., left and right eyes) in the query image can both trigger high similarity on certain support keypoints (eyes), which leads to duplicated or opposite predictions. To calibrate the inaccurate matching results, we introduce a two-stage framework, where matched keypoints from the first stage are viewed as similarity-aware position proposals. Then, the model learns to fetch relevant features to correct the initial proposals in the second stage. We instantiate the framework with a transformer model tailored for CAPE. The transformer encoder incorporates specific designs to improve the representation and similarity modeling in the first matching stage. In the second stage, similarity-aware proposals are packed as queries in the decoder for refinement via cross-attention. Our method surpasses the previous best approach by large margins on CAPE benchmark MP-100 on both accuracy and efficiency. Code available at

Dynamic Coarse-To-Fine Learning for Oriented Tiny Object Detection

Chang Xu · Jian Ding · Jinwang Wang · Wen Yang · Huai Yu · Lei Yu · Gui-Song Xia

Detecting arbitrarily oriented tiny objects poses intense challenges to existing detectors, especially for label assignment. Despite the exploration of adaptive label assignment in recent oriented object detectors, the extreme geometry shape and limited feature of oriented tiny objects still induce severe mismatch and imbalance issues. Specifically, the position prior, positive sample feature, and instance are mismatched, and the learning of extreme-shaped objects is biased and unbalanced due to little proper feature supervision. To tackle these issues, we propose a dynamic prior along with the coarse-to-fine assigner, dubbed DCFL. For one thing, we model the prior, label assignment, and object representation all in a dynamic manner to alleviate the mismatch issue. For another, we leverage the coarse prior matching and finer posterior constraint to dynamically assign labels, providing appropriate and relatively balanced supervision for diverse instances. Extensive experiments on six datasets show substantial improvements to the baseline. Notably, we obtain the state-of-the-art performance for one-stage detectors on the DOTA-v1.5, DOTA-v2.0, and DIOR-R datasets under single-scale training and testing. Codes are available at

Dense Distinct Query for End-to-End Object Detection

Shilong Zhang · Xinjiang Wang · Jiaqi Wang · Jiangmiao Pang · Chengqi Lyu · Wenwei Zhang · Ping Luo · Kai Chen

One-to-one label assignment in object detection has successfully obviated the need of non-maximum suppression (NMS) as a postprocessing and makes the pipeline end-to-end. However, it triggers a new dilemma as the widely used sparse queries cannot guarantee a high recall, while dense queries inevitably bring more similar queries and encounters optimization difficulty. As both sparse and dense queries are problematic, then what are the expected queries in end-to-end object detection? This paper shows that the solution should be Dense Distinct Queries (DDQ). Concretely, we first lay dense queries like traditional detectors and then select distinct ones for one-to-one assignments. DDQ blends the advantages of traditional and recent end-to-end detectors and significantly improves the performance of various detectors including FCN, R-CNN, and DETRs. Most impressively, DDQ-DETR achieves 52.1 AP on MS-COCO dataset within 12 epochs using a ResNet-50 backbone, outperforming all existing detectors in the same setting. DDQ also shares the benefit of end-to-end detectors in crowded scenes and achieves 93.8 AP on CrowdHuman. We hope DDQ can inspire researchers to consider the complementarity between traditional methods and end-to-end detectors. The source code can be found at

Meta-Tuning Loss Functions and Data Augmentation for Few-Shot Object Detection

Berkan Demirel · Orhun Buğra Baran · Ramazan Gokberk Cinbis

Few-shot object detection, the problem of modelling novel object detection categories with few training instances, is an emerging topic in the area of few-shot learning and object detection. Contemporary techniques can be divided into two groups: fine-tuning based and meta-learning based approaches. While meta-learning approaches aim to learn dedicated meta-models for mapping samples to novel class models, fine-tuning approaches tackle few-shot detection in a simpler manner, by adapting the detection model to novel classes through gradient based optimization. Despite their simplicity, fine-tuning based approaches typically yield competitive detection results. Based on this observation, we focus on the role of loss functions and augmentations as the force driving the fine-tuning process, and propose to tune their dynamics through meta-learning principles. The proposed training scheme, therefore, allows learning inductive biases that can boost few-shot detection, while keeping the advantages of fine-tuning based approaches. In addition, the proposed approach yields interpretable loss functions, as opposed to highly parametric and complex few-shot meta-models. The experimental results highlight the merits of the proposed scheme, with significant improvements over the strong fine-tuning based few-shot detection baselines on benchmark Pascal VOC and MS-COCO datasets, in terms of both standard and generalized few-shot performance metrics.

One-to-Few Label Assignment for End-to-End Dense Detection

Shuai Li · Minghan Li · Ruihuang Li · Chenhang He · Lei Zhang

One-to-one (o2o) label assignment plays a key role for transformer based end-to-end detection, and it has been recently introduced in fully convolutional detectors for lightweight end-to-end dense detection. However, o2o can largely degrade the feature learning performance due to the limited number of positive samples. Though extra positive samples can be introduced to mitigate this issue, the computation of self- and cross- attentions among anchors prevents its practical application to dense and fully convolutional detectors. In this work, we propose a simple yet effective one-to-few (o2f) label assignment strategy for end-to-end dense detection. Apart from defining one positive and many negative anchors for each object, we define several soft anchors, which serve as positive and negative samples simultaneously. The positive and negative weights of these soft anchors are dynamically adjusted during training so that they can contribute more to ‘representation learning’ in the early training stage and contribute more to ‘duplicated prediction removal’ in the later stage. The detector trained in this way can not only learn a strong feature representation but also perform end-to-end detection. Experiments on COCO and CrowdHuman datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed o2f scheme.

Test Time Adaptation With Regularized Loss for Weakly Supervised Salient Object Detection

Olga Veksler

It is well known that CNNs tend to overfit to the training data. Test-time adaptation is an extreme approach to deal with overfitting: given a test image, the aim is to adapt the trained model to that image. Indeed nothing can be closer to the test data than the test image itself. The main difficulty of test-time adaptation is that the ground truth is not available. Thus test-time adaptation, while intriguing, applies to only a few scenarios where one can design an effective loss function that does not require ground truth. We propose the first approach for test-time Salient Object Detection (SOD) in the context of weak supervision. Our approach is based on a so called regularized loss function, which can be used for training CNN when pixel precise ground truth is unavailable. Regularized loss tends to have lower values for the more likely object segments, and thus it can be used to fine-tune an already trained CNN to a given test image, adapting to images unseen during training. We develop a regularized loss function particularly suitable for test-time adaptation and show that our approach significantly outperforms prior work for weakly supervised SOD.

MixTeacher: Mining Promising Labels With Mixed Scale Teacher for Semi-Supervised Object Detection

Liang Liu · Boshen Zhang · Jiangning Zhang · Wuhao Zhang · Zhenye Gan · Guanzhong Tian · Wenbing Zhu · Yabiao Wang · Chengjie Wang

Scale variation across object instances is one of the key challenges in object detection. Although modern detection models have achieved remarkable progress in dealing with the scale variation, it still brings trouble in the semi-supervised case. Most existing semi-supervised object detection methods rely on strict conditions to filter out high-quality pseudo labels from the network predictions. However, we observe that objects with extreme scale tend to have low confidence, which makes the positive supervision missing for these objects. In this paper, we delve into the scale variation problem, and propose a novel framework by introducing a mixed scale teacher to improve the pseudo labels generation and scale invariant learning. In addition, benefiting from the better predictions from mixed scale features, we propose to mine pseudo labels with the score promotion of predictions across scales. Extensive experiments on MS COCO and PASCAL VOC benchmarks under various semi-supervised settings demonstrate that our method achieves new state-of-the-art performance. The code and models will be made publicly available.

Exploring Incompatible Knowledge Transfer in Few-Shot Image Generation

Yunqing Zhao · Chao Du · Milad Abdollahzadeh · Tianyu Pang · Min Lin · Shuicheng Yan · Ngai-Man Cheung

Few-shot image generation (FSIG) learns to generate diverse and high-fidelity images from a target domain using a few (e.g., 10) reference samples. Existing FSIG methods select, preserve and transfer prior knowledge from a source generator (pretrained on a related domain) to learn the target generator. In this work, we investigate an underexplored issue in FSIG, dubbed as incompatible knowledge transfer, which would significantly degrade the realisticness of synthetic samples. Empirical observations show that the issue stems from the least significant filters from the source generator. To this end, we propose knowledge truncation to mitigate this issue in FSIG, which is a complementary operation to knowledge preservation and is implemented by a lightweight pruning-based method. Extensive experiments show that knowledge truncation is simple and effective, consistently achieving state-of-the-art performance, including challenging setups where the source and target domains are more distant. Project Page:

Exploring Intra-Class Variation Factors With Learnable Cluster Prompts for Semi-Supervised Image Synthesis

Yunfei Zhang · Xiaoyang Huo · Tianyi Chen · Si Wu · Hau San Wong

Semi-supervised class-conditional image synthesis is typically performed by inferring and injecting class labels into a conditional Generative Adversarial Network (GAN). The supervision in the form of class identity may be inadequate to model classes with diverse visual appearances. In this paper, we propose a Learnable Cluster Prompt-based GAN (LCP-GAN) to capture class-wise characteristics and intra-class variation factors with a broader source of supervision. To exploit partially labeled data, we perform soft partitioning on each class, and explore the possibility of associating intra-class clusters with learnable visual concepts in the feature space of a pre-trained language-vision model, e.g., CLIP. For class-conditional image generation, we design a cluster-conditional generator by injecting a combination of intra-class cluster label embeddings, and further incorporate a real-fake classification head on top of CLIP to distinguish real instances from the synthesized ones, conditioned on the learnable cluster prompts. This significantly strengthens the generator with more semantic language supervision. LCP-GAN not only possesses superior generation capability but also matches the performance of the fully supervised version of the base models: BigGAN and StyleGAN2-ADA, on multiple standard benchmarks.

A Soma Segmentation Benchmark in Full Adult Fly Brain

Xiaoyu Liu · Bo Hu · Mingxing Li · Wei Huang · Yueyi Zhang · Zhiwei Xiong

Neuron reconstruction in a full adult fly brain from high-resolution electron microscopy (EM) data is regarded as a cornerstone for neuroscientists to explore how neurons inspire intelligence. As the central part of neurons, somas in the full brain indicate the origin of neurogenesis and neural functions. However, due to the absence of EM datasets specifically annotated for somas, existing deep learning-based neuron reconstruction methods cannot directly provide accurate soma distribution and morphology. Moreover, full brain neuron reconstruction remains extremely time-consuming due to the unprecedentedly large size of EM data. In this paper, we develop an efficient soma reconstruction method for obtaining accurate soma distribution and morphology information in a full adult fly brain. To this end, we first make a high-resolution EM dataset with fine-grained 3D manual annotations on somas. Relying on this dataset, we propose an efficient, two-stage deep learning algorithm for predicting accurate locations and boundaries of 3D soma instances. Further, we deploy a parallelized, high-throughput data processing pipeline for executing the above algorithm on the full brain. Finally, we provide quantitative and qualitative benchmark comparisons on the testset to validate the superiority of the proposed method, as well as preliminary statistics of the reconstructed somas in the full adult fly brain from the biological perspective. We release our code and dataset at

SDC-UDA: Volumetric Unsupervised Domain Adaptation Framework for Slice-Direction Continuous Cross-Modality Medical Image Segmentation

Hyungseob Shin · Hyeongyu Kim · Sewon Kim · Yohan Jun · Taejoon Eo · Dosik Hwang

Recent advances in deep learning-based medical image segmentation studies achieve nearly human-level performance in fully supervised manner. However, acquiring pixel-level expert annotations is extremely expensive and laborious in medical imaging fields. Unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) can alleviate this problem, which makes it possible to use annotated data in one imaging modality to train a network that can successfully perform segmentation on target imaging modality with no labels. In this work, we propose SDC-UDA, a simple yet effective volumetric UDA framework for Slice-Direction Continuous cross-modality medical image segmentation which combines intra- and inter-slice self-attentive image translation, uncertainty-constrained pseudo-label refinement, and volumetric self-training. Our method is distinguished from previous methods on UDA for medical image segmentation in that it can obtain continuous segmentation in the slice direction, thereby ensuring higher accuracy and potential in clinical practice. We validate SDC-UDA with multiple publicly available cross-modality medical image segmentation datasets and achieve state-of-the-art segmentation performance, not to mention the superior slice-direction continuity of prediction compared to previous studies.

Label-Free Liver Tumor Segmentation

Qixin Hu · Yixiong Chen · Junfei Xiao · Shuwen Sun · Jieneng Chen · Alan L. Yuille · Zongwei Zhou

We demonstrate that AI models can accurately segment liver tumors without the need for manual annotation by using synthetic tumors in CT scans. Our synthetic tumors have two intriguing advantages: (I) realistic in shape and texture, which even medical professionals can confuse with real tumors; (II) effective for training AI models, which can perform liver tumor segmentation similarly to the model trained on real tumors--this result is exciting because no existing work, using synthetic tumors only, has thus far reached a similar or even close performance to real tumors. This result also implies that manual efforts for annotating tumors voxel by voxel (which took years to create) can be significantly reduced in the future. Moreover, our synthetic tumors can automatically generate many examples of small (or even tiny) synthetic tumors and have the potential to improve the success rate of detecting small liver tumors, which is critical for detecting the early stages of cancer. In addition to enriching the training data, our synthesizing strategy also enables us to rigorously assess the AI robustness.

Interactive and Explainable Region-Guided Radiology Report Generation

Tim Tanida · Philip Müller · Georgios Kaissis · Daniel Rueckert

The automatic generation of radiology reports has the potential to assist radiologists in the time-consuming task of report writing. Existing methods generate the full report from image-level features, failing to explicitly focus on anatomical regions in the image. We propose a simple yet effective region-guided report generation model that detects anatomical regions and then describes individual, salient regions to form the final report. While previous methods generate reports without the possibility of human intervention and with limited explainability, our method opens up novel clinical use cases through additional interactive capabilities and introduces a high degree of transparency and explainability. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate our method’s effectiveness in report generation, outperforming previous state-of-the-art models, and highlight its interactive capabilities. The code and checkpoints are available at

A Loopback Network for Explainable Microvascular Invasion Classification

Shengxuming Zhang · Tianqi Shi · Yang Jiang · Xiuming Zhang · Jie Lei · Zunlei Feng · Mingli Song

Microvascular invasion (MVI) is a critical factor for prognosis evaluation and cancer treatment. The current diagnosis of MVI relies on pathologists to manually find out cancerous cells from hundreds of blood vessels, which is time-consuming, tedious, and subjective. Recently, deep learning has achieved promising results in medical image analysis tasks. However, the unexplainability of black box models and the requirement of massive annotated samples limit the clinical application of deep learning based diagnostic methods. In this paper, aiming to develop an accurate, objective, and explainable diagnosis tool for MVI, we propose a Loopback Network (LoopNet) for classifying MVI efficiently. With the image-level category annotations of the collected Pathologic Vessel Image Dataset (PVID), LoopNet is devised to be composed binary classification branch and cell locating branch. The latter is devised to locate the area of cancerous cells, regular non-cancerous cells, and background. For healthy samples, the pseudo masks of cells supervise the cell locating branch to distinguish the area of regular non-cancerous cells and background. For each MVI sample, the cell locating branch predicts the mask of cancerous cells. Then the masked cancerous and non-cancerous areas of the same sample are inputted back to the binary classification branch separately. The loopback between two branches enables the category label to supervise the cell locating branch to learn the locating ability for cancerous areas. Experiment results show that the proposed LoopNet achieves 97.5% accuracy on MVI classification. Surprisingly, the proposed loopback mechanism not only enables LoopNet to predict the cancerous area but also facilitates the classification backbone to achieve better classification performance.

Task-Specific Fine-Tuning via Variational Information Bottleneck for Weakly-Supervised Pathology Whole Slide Image Classification

Honglin Li · Chenglu Zhu · Yunlong Zhang · Yuxuan Sun · Zhongyi Shui · Wenwei Kuang · Sunyi Zheng · Lin Yang

While Multiple Instance Learning (MIL) has shown promising results in digital Pathology Whole Slide Image (WSI) analysis, such a paradigm still faces performance and generalization problems due to high computational costs and limited supervision of Gigapixel WSIs. To deal with the computation problem, previous methods utilize a frozen model pretrained from ImageNet to obtain representations, however, it may lose key information owing to the large domain gap and hinder the generalization ability without image-level training-time augmentation. Though Self-supervised Learning (SSL) proposes viable representation learning schemes, the downstream task-specific features via partial label tuning are not explored. To alleviate this problem, we propose an efficient WSI fine-tuning framework motivated by the Information Bottleneck theory. The theory enables the framework to find the minimal sufficient statistics of WSI, thus supporting us to fine-tune the backbone into a task-specific representation only depending on WSI-level weak labels. The WSI-MIL problem is further analyzed to theoretically deduce our fine-tuning method. We evaluate the method on five pathological WSI datasets on various WSI heads. The experimental results show significant improvements in both accuracy and generalization compared with previous works. Source code will be available at

YOLOv7: Trainable Bag-of-Freebies Sets New State-of-the-Art for Real-Time Object Detectors

Chien-Yao Wang · Alexey Bochkovskiy · Hong-Yuan Mark Liao

Real-time object detection is one of the most important research topics in computer vision. As new approaches regarding architecture optimization and training optimization are continually being developed, we have found two research topics that have spawned when dealing with these latest state-of-the-art methods. To address the topics, we propose a trainable bag-of-freebies oriented solution. We combine the flexible and efficient training tools with the proposed architecture and the compound scaling method. YOLOv7 surpasses all known object detectors in both speed and accuracy in the range from 5 FPS to 120 FPS and has the highest accuracy 56.8% AP among all known realtime object detectors with 30 FPS or higher on GPU V100. Source code is released in WongKinYiu/yolov7.

Two-Way Multi-Label Loss

Takumi Kobayashi

A natural image frequently contains multiple classification targets, accordingly providing multiple class labels rather than a single label per image. While the single-label classification is effectively addressed by applying a softmax cross-entropy loss, the multi-label task is tackled mainly in a binary cross-entropy (BCE) framework. In contrast to the softmax loss, the BCE loss involves issues regarding imbalance as multiple classes are decomposed into a bunch of binary classifications; recent works improve the BCE loss to cope with the issue by means of weighting. In this paper, we propose a multi-label loss by bridging a gap between the softmax loss and the multi-label scenario. The proposed loss function is formulated on the basis of relative comparison among classes which also enables us to further improve discriminative power of features by enhancing classification margin. The loss function is so flexible as to be applicable to a multi-label setting in two ways for discriminating classes as well as samples. In the experiments on multi-label classification, the proposed method exhibits competitive performance to the other multi-label losses, and it also provides transferrable features on single-label ImageNet training. Codes are available at

Teaching Matters: Investigating the Role of Supervision in Vision Transformers

Matthew Walmer · Saksham Suri · Kamal Gupta · Abhinav Shrivastava

Vision Transformers (ViTs) have gained significant popularity in recent years and have proliferated into many applications. However, their behavior under different learning paradigms is not well explored. We compare ViTs trained through different methods of supervision, and show that they learn a diverse range of behaviors in terms of their attention, representations, and downstream performance. We also discover ViT behaviors that are consistent across supervision, including the emergence of Offset Local Attention Heads. These are self-attention heads that attend to a token adjacent to the current token with a fixed directional offset, a phenomenon that to the best of our knowledge has not been highlighted in any prior work. Our analysis shows that ViTs are highly flexible and learn to process local and global information in different orders depending on their training method. We find that contrastive self-supervised methods learn features that are competitive with explicitly supervised features, and they can even be superior for part-level tasks. We also find that the representations of reconstruction-based models show non-trivial similarity to contrastive self-supervised models.

Detection of Out-of-Distribution Samples Using Binary Neuron Activation Patterns

Bartłomiej Olber · Krystian Radlak · Adam Popowicz · Michal Szczepankiewicz · Krystian Chachuła

Deep neural networks (DNN) have outstanding performance in various applications. Despite numerous efforts of the research community, out-of-distribution (OOD) samples remain a significant limitation of DNN classifiers. The ability to identify previously unseen inputs as novel is crucial in safety-critical applications such as self-driving cars, unmanned aerial vehicles, and robots. Existing approaches to detect OOD samples treat a DNN as a black box and evaluate the confidence score of the output predictions. Unfortunately, this method frequently fails, because DNNs are not trained to reduce their confidence for OOD inputs. In this work, we introduce a novel method for OOD detection. Our method is motivated by theoretical analysis of neuron activation patterns (NAP) in ReLU-based architectures. The proposed method does not introduce a high computational overhead due to the binary representation of the activation patterns extracted from convolutional layers. The extensive empirical evaluation proves its high performance on various DNN architectures and seven image datasets.

Label Information Bottleneck for Label Enhancement

Qinghai Zheng · Jihua Zhu · Haoyu Tang

In this work, we focus on the challenging problem of Label Enhancement (LE), which aims to exactly recover label distributions from logical labels, and present a novel Label Information Bottleneck (LIB) method for LE. For the recovery process of label distributions, the label irrelevant information contained in the dataset may lead to unsatisfactory recovery performance. To address this limitation, we make efforts to excavate the essential label relevant information to improve the recovery performance. Our method formulates the LE problem as the following two joint processes: 1) learning the representation with the essential label relevant information, 2) recovering label distributions based on the learned representation. The label relevant information can be excavated based on the “bottleneck” formed by the learned representation. Significantly, both the label relevant information about the label assignments and the label relevant information about the label gaps can be explored in our method. Evaluation experiments conducted on several benchmark label distribution learning datasets verify the effectiveness and competitiveness of LIB.

Glocal Energy-Based Learning for Few-Shot Open-Set Recognition

Haoyu Wang · Guansong Pang · Peng Wang · Lei Zhang · Wei Wei · Yanning Zhang

Few-shot open-set recognition (FSOR) is a challenging task of great practical value. It aims to categorize a sample to one of the pre-defined, closed-set classes illustrated by few examples while being able to reject the sample from unknown classes. In this work, we approach the FSOR task by proposing a novel energy-based hybrid model. The model is composed of two branches, where a classification branch learns a metric to classify a sample to one of closed-set classes and the energy branch explicitly estimates the open-set probability. To achieve holistic detection of open-set samples, our model leverages both class-wise and pixel-wise features to learn a glocal energy-based score, in which a global energy score is learned using the class-wise features, while a local energy score is learned using the pixel-wise features. The model is enforced to assign large energy scores to samples that are deviated from the few-shot examples in either the class-wise features or the pixel-wise features, and to assign small energy scores otherwise. Experiments on three standard FSOR datasets show the superior performance of our model.

Noisy Correspondence Learning With Meta Similarity Correction

Haochen Han · Kaiyao Miao · Qinghua Zheng · Minnan Luo

Despite the success of multimodal learning in cross-modal retrieval task, the remarkable progress relies on the correct correspondence among multimedia data. However, collecting such ideal data is expensive and time-consuming. In practice, most widely used datasets are harvested from the Internet and inevitably contain mismatched pairs. Training on such noisy correspondence datasets causes performance degradation because the cross-modal retrieval methods can wrongly enforce the mismatched data to be similar. To tackle this problem, we propose a Meta Similarity Correction Network (MSCN) to provide reliable similarity scores. We view a binary classification task as the meta-process that encourages the MSCN to learn discrimination from positive and negative meta-data. To further alleviate the influence of noise, we design an effective data purification strategy using meta-data as prior knowledge to remove the noisy samples. Extensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate the strengths of our method in both synthetic and real-world noises, including Flickr30K, MS-COCO, and Conceptual Captions.

Hubs and Hyperspheres: Reducing Hubness and Improving Transductive Few-Shot Learning With Hyperspherical Embeddings

Daniel J. Trosten · Rwiddhi Chakraborty · Sigurd Løkse · Kristoffer Knutsen Wickstrøm · Robert Jenssen · Michael C. Kampffmeyer

Distance-based classification is frequently used in transductive few-shot learning (FSL). However, due to the high-dimensionality of image representations, FSL classifiers are prone to suffer from the hubness problem, where a few points (hubs) occur frequently in multiple nearest neighbour lists of other points. Hubness negatively impacts distance-based classification when hubs from one class appear often among the nearest neighbors of points from another class, degrading the classifier’s performance. To address the hubness problem in FSL, we first prove that hubness can be eliminated by distributing representations uniformly on the hypersphere. We then propose two new approaches to embed representations on the hypersphere, which we prove optimize a tradeoff between uniformity and local similarity preservation -- reducing hubness while retaining class structure. Our experiments show that the proposed methods reduce hubness, and significantly improves transductive FSL accuracy for a wide range of classifiers.

Coreset Sampling From Open-Set for Fine-Grained Self-Supervised Learning

Sungnyun Kim · Sangmin Bae · Se-Young Yun

Deep learning in general domains has constantly been extended to domain-specific tasks requiring the recognition of fine-grained characteristics. However, real-world applications for fine-grained tasks suffer from two challenges: a high reliance on expert knowledge for annotation and necessity of a versatile model for various downstream tasks in a specific domain (e.g., prediction of categories, bounding boxes, or pixel-wise annotations). Fortunately, the recent self-supervised learning (SSL) is a promising approach to pretrain a model without annotations, serving as an effective initialization for any downstream tasks. Since SSL does not rely on the presence of annotation, in general, it utilizes the large-scale unlabeled dataset, referred to as an open-set. In this sense, we introduce a novel Open-Set Self-Supervised Learning problem under the assumption that a large-scale unlabeled open-set is available, as well as the fine-grained target dataset, during a pretraining phase. In our problem setup, it is crucial to consider the distribution mismatch between the open-set and target dataset. Hence, we propose SimCore algorithm to sample a coreset, the subset of an open-set that has a minimum distance to the target dataset in the latent space. We demonstrate that SimCore significantly improves representation learning performance through extensive experimental settings, including eleven fine-grained datasets and seven open-sets in various downstream tasks.

Boosting Semi-Supervised Learning by Exploiting All Unlabeled Data

Yuhao Chen · Xin Tan · Borui Zhao · Zhaowei Chen · Renjie Song · Jiajun Liang · Xuequan Lu

Semi-supervised learning (SSL) has attracted enormous attention due to its vast potential of mitigating the dependence on large labeled datasets. The latest methods (e.g., FixMatch) use a combination of consistency regularization and pseudo-labeling to achieve remarkable successes. However, these methods all suffer from the waste of complicated examples since all pseudo-labels have to be selected by a high threshold to filter out noisy ones. Hence, the examples with ambiguous predictions will not contribute to the training phase. For better leveraging all unlabeled examples, we propose two novel techniques: Entropy Meaning Loss (EML) and Adaptive Negative Learning (ANL). EML incorporates the prediction distribution of non-target classes into the optimization objective to avoid competition with target class, and thus generating more high-confidence predictions for selecting pseudo-label. ANL introduces the additional negative pseudo-label for all unlabeled data to leverage low-confidence examples. It adaptively allocates this label by dynamically evaluating the top-k performance of the model. EML and ANL do not introduce any additional parameter and hyperparameter. We integrate these techniques with FixMatch, and develop a simple yet powerful framework called FullMatch. Extensive experiments on several common SSL benchmarks (CIFAR-10/100, SVHN, STL-10 and ImageNet) demonstrate that FullMatch exceeds FixMatch by a large margin. Integrated with FlexMatch (an advanced FixMatch-based framework), we achieve state-of-the-art performance. Source code is available at

Trade-Off Between Robustness and Accuracy of Vision Transformers

Yanxi Li · Chang Xu

Although deep neural networks (DNNs) have shown great successes in computer vision tasks, they are vulnerable to perturbations on inputs, and there exists a trade-off between the natural accuracy and robustness to such perturbations, which is mainly caused by the existence of robust non-predictive features and non-robust predictive features. Recent empirical analyses find Vision Transformers (ViTs) are inherently robust to various kinds of perturbations, but the aforementioned trade-off still exists for them. In this work, we propose Trade-off between Robustness and Accuracy of Vision Transformers (TORA-ViTs), which aims to efficiently transfer ViT models pretrained on natural tasks for both accuracy and robustness. TORA-ViTs consist of two major components, including a pair of accuracy and robustness adapters to extract predictive and robust features, respectively, and a gated fusion module to adjust the trade-off. The gated fusion module takes outputs of a pretrained ViT block as queries and outputs of our adapters as keys and values, and tokens from different adapters at different spatial locations are compared with each other to generate attention scores for a balanced mixing of predictive and robust features. Experiments on ImageNet with various robust benchmarks show that our TORA-ViTs can efficiently improve the robustness of naturally pretrained ViTs while maintaining competitive natural accuracy. Our most balanced setting (TORA-ViTs with lambda = 0.5) can maintain 83.7% accuracy on clean ImageNet and reach 54.7% and 38.0% accuracy under FGSM and PGD white-box attacks, respectively. In terms of various ImageNet variants, it can reach 39.2% and 56.3% accuracy on ImageNet-A and ImageNet-R and reach 34.4% mCE on ImageNet-C.

Exploring and Utilizing Pattern Imbalance

Shibin Mei · Chenglong Zhao · Shengchao Yuan · Bingbing Ni

In this paper, we identify pattern imbalance from several aspects, and further develop a new training scheme to avert pattern preference as well as spurious correlation. In contrast to prior methods which are mostly concerned with category or domain granularity, ignoring the potential finer structure that existed in datasets, we give a new definition of seed category as an appropriate optimization unit to distinguish different patterns in the same category or domain. Extensive experiments on domain generalization datasets of diverse scales demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Dynamic Conceptional Contrastive Learning for Generalized Category Discovery

Nan Pu · Zhun Zhong · Nicu Sebe

Generalized category discovery (GCD) is a recently proposed open-world problem, which aims to automatically cluster partially labeled data. The main challenge is that the unlabeled data contain instances that are not only from known categories of the labeled data but also from novel categories. This leads traditional novel category discovery (NCD) methods to be incapacitated for GCD, due to their assumption of unlabeled data are only from novel categories. One effective way for GCD is applying self-supervised learning to learn discriminate representation for unlabeled data. However, this manner largely ignores underlying relationships between instances of the same concepts (e.g., class, super-class, and sub-class), which results in inferior representation learning. In this paper, we propose a Dynamic Conceptional Contrastive Learning (DCCL) framework, which can effectively improve clustering accuracy by alternately estimating underlying visual conceptions and learning conceptional representation. In addition, we design a dynamic conception generation and update mechanism, which is able to ensure consistent conception learning and thus further facilitate the optimization of DCCL. Extensive experiments show that DCCL achieves new state-of-the-art performances on six generic and fine-grained visual recognition datasets, especially on fine-grained ones. For example, our method significantly surpasses the best competitor by 16.2% on the new classes for the CUB-200 dataset. Code is available at

Towards Better Decision Forests: Forest Alternating Optimization

Miguel Á. Carreira-Perpiñán · Magzhan Gabidolla · Arman Zharmagambetov

Decision forests are among the most accurate models in machine learning. This is remarkable given that the way they are trained is highly heuristic: neither the individual trees nor the overall forest optimize any well-defined loss. While diversity mechanisms such as bagging or boosting have been until now critical in the success of forests, we think that a better optimization should lead to better forests---ideally eliminating any need for an ensembling heuristic. However, unlike for most other models, such as neural networks, optimizing forests or trees is not easy, because they define a non-differentiable function. We show, for the first time, that it is possible to learn a forest by optimizing a desirable loss and regularization jointly over all its trees and parameters. Our algorithm, Forest Alternating Optimization, is based on defining a forest as a parametric model with a fixed number of trees and structure (rather than adding trees indefinitely as in bagging or boosting). It then iteratively updates each tree in alternation so that the objective function decreases monotonically. The algorithm is so effective at optimizing that it easily overfits, but this can be corrected by averaging. The result is a forest that consistently exceeds the accuracy of the state-of-the-art while using fewer, smaller trees.

Learning Debiased Representations via Conditional Attribute Interpolation

Yi-Kai Zhang · Qi-Wei Wang · De-Chuan Zhan · Han-Jia Ye

An image is usually described by more than one attribute like “shape” and “color”. When a dataset is biased, i.e., most samples have attributes spuriously correlated with the target label, a Deep Neural Network (DNN) is prone to make predictions by the “unintended” attribute, especially if it is easier to learn. To improve the generalization ability when training on such a biased dataset, we propose a chi^2-model to learn debiased representations. First, we design a chi-shape pattern to match the training dynamics of a DNN and find Intermediate Attribute Samples (IASs) --- samples near the attribute decision boundaries, which indicate how the value of an attribute changes from one extreme to another. Then we rectify the representation with a chi-structured metric learning objective. Conditional interpolation among IASs eliminates the negative effect of peripheral attributes and facilitates retaining the intra-class compactness. Experiments show that chi^2-model learns debiased representation effectively and achieves remarkable improvements on various datasets.

On the Pitfall of Mixup for Uncertainty Calibration

Deng-Bao Wang · Lanqing Li · Peilin Zhao · Pheng-Ann Heng · Min-Ling Zhang

By simply taking convex combinations between pairs of samples and their labels, mixup training has been shown to easily improve predictive accuracy. It has been recently found that models trained with mixup also perform well on uncertainty calibration. However, in this study, we found that mixup training usually makes models less calibratable than vanilla empirical risk minimization, which means that it would harm uncertainty estimation when post-hoc calibration is considered. By decomposing the mixup process into data transformation and random perturbation, we suggest that the confidence penalty nature of the data transformation is the reason of calibration degradation. To mitigate this problem, we first investigate the mixup inference strategy and found that despite it improves calibration on mixup, this ensemble-like strategy does not necessarily outperform simple ensemble. Then, we propose a general strategy named mixup inference in training, which adopts a simple decoupling principle for recovering the outputs of raw samples at the end of forward network pass. By embedding the mixup inference, models can be learned from the original one-hot labels and hence avoid the negative impact of confidence penalty. Our experiments show this strategy properly solves mixup’s calibration issue without sacrificing the predictive performance, while even improves accuracy than vanilla mixup.

Class Relationship Embedded Learning for Source-Free Unsupervised Domain Adaptation

Yixin Zhang · Zilei Wang · Weinan He

This work focuses on a practical knowledge transfer task defined as Source-Free Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (SFUDA), where only a well-trained source model and unlabeled target data are available. To fully utilize source knowledge, we propose to transfer the class relationship, which is domain-invariant but still under-explored in previous works. To this end, we first regard the classifier weights of the source model as class prototypes to compute class relationship, and then propose a novel probability-based similarity between target-domain samples by embedding the source-domain class relationship, resulting in Class Relationship embedded Similarity (CRS). Here the inter-class term is particularly considered in order to more accurately represent the similarity between two samples, in which the source prior of class relationship is utilized by weighting. Finally, we propose to embed CRS into contrastive learning in a unified form. Here both class-aware and instance discrimination contrastive losses are employed, which are complementary to each other. We combine the proposed method with existing representative methods to evaluate its efficacy in multiple SFUDA settings. Extensive experimental results reveal that our method can achieve state-of-the-art performance due to the transfer of domain-invariant class relationship.

FeatureBooster: Boosting Feature Descriptors With a Lightweight Neural Network

Xinjiang Wang · Zeyu Liu · Yu Hu · Wei Xi · Wenxian Yu · Danping Zou

We introduce a lightweight network to improve descriptors of keypoints within the same image. The network takes the original descriptors and the geometric properties of keypoints as the input, and uses an MLP-based self-boosting stage and a Transformer-based cross-boosting stage to enhance the descriptors. The boosted descriptors can be either real-valued or binary ones. We use the proposed network to boost both hand-crafted (ORB, SIFT) and the state-of-the-art learning-based descriptors (SuperPoint, ALIKE) and evaluate them on image matching, visual localization, and structure-from-motion tasks. The results show that our method significantly improves the performance of each task, particularly in challenging cases such as large illumination changes or repetitive patterns. Our method requires only 3.2ms on desktop GPU and 27ms on embedded GPU to process 2000 features, which is fast enough to be applied to a practical system. The code and trained weights are publicly available at

Guiding Pseudo-Labels With Uncertainty Estimation for Source-Free Unsupervised Domain Adaptation

Mattia Litrico · Alessio Del Bue · Pietro Morerio

Standard Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (UDA) methods assume the availability of both source and target data during the adaptation. In this work, we investigate Source-free Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (SF-UDA), a specific case of UDA where a model is adapted to a target domain without access to source data. We propose a novel approach for the SF-UDA setting based on a loss reweighting strategy that brings robustness against the noise that inevitably affects the pseudo-labels. The classification loss is reweighted based on the reliability of the pseudo-labels that is measured by estimating their uncertainty. Guided by such reweighting strategy, the pseudo-labels are progressively refined by aggregating knowledge from neighbouring samples. Furthermore, a self-supervised contrastive framework is leveraged as a target space regulariser to enhance such knowledge aggregation. A novel negative pairs exclusion strategy is proposed to identify and exclude negative pairs made of samples sharing the same class, even in presence of some noise in the pseudo-labels. Our method outperforms previous methods on three major benchmarks by a large margin. We set the new SF-UDA state-of-the-art on VisDA-C and DomainNet with a performance gain of +1.8% on both benchmarks and on PACS with +12.3% in the single-source setting and +6.6% in multi-target adaptation. Additional analyses demonstrate that the proposed approach is robust to the noise, which results in significantly more accurate pseudo-labels compared to state-of-the-art approaches.

Divide and Adapt: Active Domain Adaptation via Customized Learning

Duojun Huang · Jichang Li · Weikai Chen · Junshi Huang · Zhenhua Chai · Guanbin Li

Active domain adaptation (ADA) aims to improve the model adaptation performance by incorporating the active learning (AL) techniques to label a maximally-informative subset of target samples. Conventional AL methods do not consider the existence of domain shift, and hence, fail to identify the truly valuable samples in the context of domain adaptation. To accommodate active learning and domain adaption, the two naturally different tasks, in a collaborative framework, we advocate that a customized learning strategy for the target data is the key to the success of ADA solutions. We present Divide-and-Adapt (DiaNA), a new ADA framework that partitions the target instances into four categories with stratified transferable properties. With a novel data subdivision protocol based on uncertainty and domainness, DiaNA can accurately recognize the most gainful samples. While sending the informative instances for annotation, DiaNA employs tailored learning strategies for the remaining categories. Furthermore, we propose an informativeness score that unifies the data partitioning criteria. This enables the use of a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to automatically sample unlabeled data into the proposed four categories. Thanks to the “divide-and-adapt” spirit, DiaNA can handle data with large variations of domain gap. In addition, we show that DiaNA can generalize to different domain adaptation settings, such as unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA), semi-supervised domain adaptation (SSDA), source-free domain adaptation (SFDA), etc.

Understanding and Constructing Latent Modality Structures in Multi-Modal Representation Learning

Qian Jiang · Changyou Chen · Han Zhao · Liqun Chen · Qing Ping · Son Dinh Tran · Yi Xu · Belinda Zeng · Trishul Chilimbi

Contrastive loss has been increasingly used in learning representations from multiple modalities. In the limit, the nature of the contrastive loss encourages modalities to exactly match each other in the latent space. Yet it remains an open question how the modality alignment affects the downstream task performance. In this paper, based on an information-theoretic argument, we first prove that exact modality alignment is sub-optimal in general for downstream prediction tasks. Hence we advocate that the key of better performance lies in meaningful latent modality structures instead of perfect modality alignment. To this end, we propose three general approaches to construct latent modality structures. Specifically, we design 1) a deep feature separation loss for intra-modality regularization; 2) a Brownian-bridge loss for inter-modality regularization; and 3) a geometric consistency loss for both intra- and inter-modality regularization. Extensive experiments are conducted on two popular multi-modal representation learning frameworks: the CLIP-based two-tower model and the ALBEF-based fusion model. We test our model on a variety of tasks including zero/few-shot image classification, image-text retrieval, visual question answering, visual reasoning, and visual entailment. Our method achieves consistent improvements over existing methods, demonstrating the effectiveness and generalizability of our proposed approach on latent modality structure regularization.

Deep Factorized Metric Learning

Chengkun Wang · Wenzhao Zheng · Junlong Li · Jie Zhou · Jiwen Lu

Learning a generalizable and comprehensive similarity metric to depict the semantic discrepancies between images is the foundation of many computer vision tasks. While existing methods approach this goal by learning an ensemble of embeddings with diverse objectives, the backbone network still receives a mix of all the training signals. Differently, we propose a deep factorized metric learning method (DFML) to factorize the training signal and employ different samples to train various components of the backbone network. We factorize the network to different sub-blocks and devise a learnable router to adaptively allocate the training samples to each sub-block with the objective to capture the most information. The metric model trained by DFML captures different characteristics with different sub-blocks and constitutes a generalizable metric when using all the sub-blocks. The proposed DFML achieves state-of-the-art performance on all three benchmarks for deep metric learning including CUB-200-2011, Cars196, and Stanford Online Products. We also generalize DFML to the image classification task on ImageNet-1K and observe consistent improvement in accuracy/computation trade-off. Specifically, we improve the performance of ViT-B on ImageNet (+0.2% accuracy) with less computation load (-24% FLOPs).

Meta-Causal Learning for Single Domain Generalization

Jin Chen · Zhi Gao · Xinxiao Wu · Jiebo Luo

Single domain generalization aims to learn a model from a single training domain (source domain) and apply it to multiple unseen test domains (target domains). Existing methods focus on expanding the distribution of the training domain to cover the target domains, but without estimating the domain shift between the source and target domains. In this paper, we propose a new learning paradigm, namely simulate-analyze-reduce, which first simulates the domain shift by building an auxiliary domain as the target domain, then learns to analyze the causes of domain shift, and finally learns to reduce the domain shift for model adaptation. Under this paradigm, we propose a meta-causal learning method to learn meta-knowledge, that is, how to infer the causes of domain shift between the auxiliary and source domains during training. We use the meta-knowledge to analyze the shift between the target and source domains during testing. Specifically, we perform multiple transformations on source data to generate the auxiliary domain, perform counterfactual inference to learn to discover the causal factors of the shift between the auxiliary and source domains, and incorporate the inferred causality into factor-aware domain alignments. Extensive experiments on several benchmarks of image classification show the effectiveness of our method.

Meta Omnium: A Benchmark for General-Purpose Learning-To-Learn

Ondrej Bohdal · Yinbing Tian · Yongshuo Zong · Ruchika Chavhan · Da Li · Henry Gouk · Li Guo · Timothy Hospedales

Meta-learning and other approaches to few-shot learning are widely studied for image recognition, and are increasingly applied to other vision tasks such as pose estimation and dense prediction. This naturally raises the question of whether there is any few-shot meta-learning algorithm capable of generalizing across these diverse task types? To support the community in answering this question, we introduce Meta Omnium, a dataset-of-datasets spanning multiple vision tasks including recognition, keypoint localization, semantic segmentation and regression. We experiment with popular few-shot meta-learning baselines and analyze their ability to generalize across tasks and to transfer knowledge between them. Meta Omnium enables meta-learning researchers to evaluate model generalization to a much wider array of tasks than previously possible, and provides a single framework for evaluating meta-learners across a wide suite of vision applications in a consistent manner.

Robust Mean Teacher for Continual and Gradual Test-Time Adaptation

Mario Döbler · Robert A. Marsden · Bin Yang

Since experiencing domain shifts during test-time is inevitable in practice, test-time adaption (TTA) continues to adapt the model after deployment. Recently, the area of continual and gradual test-time adaptation (TTA) emerged. In contrast to standard TTA, continual TTA considers not only a single domain shift, but a sequence of shifts. Gradual TTA further exploits the property that some shifts evolve gradually over time. Since in both settings long test sequences are present, error accumulation needs to be addressed for methods relying on self-training. In this work, we propose and show that in the setting of TTA, the symmetric cross-entropy is better suited as a consistency loss for mean teachers compared to the commonly used cross-entropy. This is justified by our analysis with respect to the (symmetric) cross-entropy’s gradient properties. To pull the test feature space closer to the source domain, where the pre-trained model is well posed, contrastive learning is leveraged. Since applications differ in their requirements, we address several settings, including having source data available and the more challenging source-free setting. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method “robust mean teacher“ (RMT) on the continual and gradual corruption benchmarks CIFAR10C, CIFAR100C, and Imagenet-C. We further consider ImageNet-R and propose a new continual DomainNet-126 benchmark. State-of-the-art results are achieved on all benchmarks.

NAR-Former: Neural Architecture Representation Learning Towards Holistic Attributes Prediction

Yun Yi · Haokui Zhang · Wenze Hu · Nannan Wang · Xiaoyu Wang

With the wide and deep adoption of deep learning models in real applications, there is an increasing need to model and learn the representations of the neural networks themselves. These models can be used to estimate attributes of different neural network architectures such as the accuracy and latency, without running the actual training or inference tasks. In this paper, we propose a neural architecture representation model that can be used to estimate these attributes holistically. Specifically, we first propose a simple and effective tokenizer to encode both the operation and topology information of a neural network into a single sequence. Then, we design a multi-stage fusion transformer to build a compact vector representation from the converted sequence. For efficient model training, we further propose an information flow consistency augmentation and correspondingly design an architecture consistency loss, which brings more benefits with less augmentation samples compared with previous random augmentation strategies. Experiment results on NAS-Bench-101, NAS-Bench-201, DARTS search space and NNLQP show that our proposed framework can be used to predict the aforementioned latency and accuracy attributes of both cell architectures and whole deep neural networks, and achieves promising performance. Code is available at

Visual Query Tuning: Towards Effective Usage of Intermediate Representations for Parameter and Memory Efficient Transfer Learning

Cheng-Hao Tu · Zheda Mai · Wei-Lun Chao

Intermediate features of a pre-trained model have been shown informative for making accurate predictions on downstream tasks, even if the model backbone is frozen. The key challenge is how to utilize them, given the gigantic amount. We propose visual query tuning (VQT), a simple yet effective approach to aggregate intermediate features of Vision Transformers. Through introducing a handful of learnable “query” tokens to each layer, VQT leverages the inner workings of Transformers to “summarize” rich intermediate features of each layer, which can then be used to train the prediction heads of downstream tasks. As VQT keeps the intermediate features intact and only learns to combine them, it enjoys memory efficiency in training, compared to many other parameter-efficient fine-tuning approaches that learn to adapt features and need back-propagation through the entire backbone. This also suggests the complementary role between VQT and those approaches in transfer learning. Empirically, VQT consistently surpasses the state-of-the-art approach that utilizes intermediate features for transfer learning and outperforms full fine-tuning in many cases. Compared to parameter-efficient approaches that adapt features, VQT achieves much higher accuracy under memory constraints. Most importantly, VQT is compatible with these approaches to attain higher accuracy, making it a simple add-on to further boost transfer learning.

Architecture, Dataset and Model-Scale Agnostic Data-Free Meta-Learning

Zixuan Hu · Li Shen · Zhenyi Wang · Tongliang Liu · Chun Yuan · Dacheng Tao

The goal of data-free meta-learning is to learn useful prior knowledge from a collection of pre-trained models without accessing their training data. However, existing works only solve the problem in parameter space, which (i) ignore the fruitful data knowledge contained in the pre-trained models; (ii) can not scale to large-scale pre-trained models; (iii) can only meta-learn pre-trained models with the same network architecture. To address those issues, we propose a unified framework, dubbed PURER, which contains: (1) ePisode cUrriculum inveRsion (ECI) during data-free meta training; and (2) invErsion calibRation following inner loop (ICFIL) during meta testing. During meta training, we propose ECI to perform pseudo episode training for learning to adapt fast to new unseen tasks. Specifically, we progressively synthesize a sequence of pseudo episodes by distilling the training data from each pre-trained model. The ECI adaptively increases the difficulty level of pseudo episodes according to the real-time feedback of the meta model. We formulate the optimization process of meta training with ECI as an adversarial form in an end-to-end manner. During meta testing, we further propose a simple plug-and-play supplement--ICFIL--only used during meta testing to narrow the gap between meta training and meta testing task distribution. Extensive experiments in various real-world scenarios show the superior performance of ours.

GKEAL: Gaussian Kernel Embedded Analytic Learning for Few-Shot Class Incremental Task

Huiping Zhuang · Zhenyu Weng · Run He · Zhiping Lin · Ziqian Zeng

Few-shot class incremental learning (FSCIL) aims to address catastrophic forgetting during class incremental learning in a few-shot learning setting. In this paper, we approach the FSCIL by adopting analytic learning, a technique that converts network training into linear problems. This is inspired by the fact that the recursive implementation (batch-by-batch learning) of analytic learning gives identical weights to that produced by training on the entire dataset at once. The recursive implementation and the weight-identical property highly resemble the FSCIL setting (phase-by-phase learning) and its goal of avoiding catastrophic forgetting. By bridging the FSCIL with the analytic learning, we propose a Gaussian kernel embedded analytic learning (GKEAL) for FSCIL. The key components of GKEAL include the kernel analytic module which allows the GKEAL to conduct FSCIL in a recursive manner, and the augmented feature concatenation module that balances the preference between old and new tasks especially effectively under the few-shot setting. Our experiments show that the GKEAL gives state-of-the-art performance on several benchmark datasets.

Mitigating Task Interference in Multi-Task Learning via Explicit Task Routing With Non-Learnable Primitives

Chuntao Ding · Zhichao Lu · Shangguang Wang · Ran Cheng · Vishnu Naresh Boddeti

Multi-task learning (MTL) seeks to learn a single model to accomplish multiple tasks by leveraging shared information among the tasks. Existing MTL models, however, have been known to suffer from negative interference among tasks. Efforts to mitigate task interference have focused on either loss/gradient balancing or implicit parameter partitioning with partial overlaps among the tasks. In this paper, we propose ETR-NLP to mitigate task interference through a synergistic combination of non-learnable primitives (NLPs) and explicit task routing (ETR). Our key idea is to employ non-learnable primitives to extract a diverse set of task-agnostic features and recombine them into a shared branch common to all tasks and explicit task-specific branches reserved for each task. The non-learnable primitives and the explicit decoupling of learnable parameters into shared and task-specific ones afford the flexibility needed for minimizing task interference. We evaluate the efficacy of ETR-NLP networks for both image-level classification and pixel-level dense prediction MTL problems. Experimental results indicate that ETR-NLP significantly outperforms state-of-the-art baselines with fewer learnable parameters and similar FLOPs across all datasets. Code is available at this URL.

Boundary Unlearning: Rapid Forgetting of Deep Networks via Shifting the Decision Boundary

Min Chen · Weizhuo Gao · Gaoyang Liu · Kai Peng · Chen Wang

The practical needs of the “right to be forgotten” and poisoned data removal call for efficient machine unlearning techniques, which enable machine learning models to unlearn, or to forget a fraction of training data and its lineage. Recent studies on machine unlearning for deep neural networks (DNNs) attempt to destroy the influence of the forgetting data by scrubbing the model parameters. However, it is prohibitively expensive due to the large dimension of the parameter space. In this paper, we refocus our attention from the parameter space to the decision space of the DNN model, and propose Boundary Unlearning, a rapid yet effective way to unlearn an entire class from a trained DNN model. The key idea is to shift the decision boundary of the original DNN model to imitate the decision behavior of the model retrained from scratch. We develop two novel boundary shift methods, namely Boundary Shrink and Boundary Expanding, both of which can rapidly achieve the utility and privacy guarantees. We extensively evaluate Boundary Unlearning on CIFAR-10 and Vggface2 datasets, and the results show that Boundary Unlearning can effectively forget the forgetting class on image classification and face recognition tasks, with an expected speed-up of 17× and 19×, respectively, compared with retraining from the scratch.

Task Difficulty Aware Parameter Allocation & Regularization for Lifelong Learning

Wenjin Wang · Yunqing Hu · Qianglong Chen · Yin Zhang

Parameter regularization or allocation methods are effective in overcoming catastrophic forgetting in lifelong learning. However, they solve all tasks in a sequence uniformly and ignore the differences in the learning difficulty of different tasks. So parameter regularization methods face significant forgetting when learning a new task very different from learned tasks, and parameter allocation methods face unnecessary parameter overhead when learning simple tasks. In this paper, we propose the Parameter Allocation & Regularization (PAR), which adaptively select an appropriate strategy for each task from parameter allocation and regularization based on its learning difficulty. A task is easy for a model that has learned tasks related to it and vice versa. We propose a divergence estimation method based on the Nearest-Prototype distance to measure the task relatedness using only features of the new task. Moreover, we propose a time-efficient relatedness-aware sampling-based architecture search strategy to reduce the parameter overhead for allocation. Experimental results on multiple benchmarks demonstrate that, compared with SOTAs, our method is scalable and significantly reduces the model’s redundancy while improving the model’s performance. Further qualitative analysis indicates that PAR obtains reasonable task-relatedness.

Learning To Retain While Acquiring: Combating Distribution-Shift in Adversarial Data-Free Knowledge Distillation

Gaurav Patel · Konda Reddy Mopuri · Qiang Qiu

Data-free Knowledge Distillation (DFKD) has gained popularity recently, with the fundamental idea of carrying out knowledge transfer from a Teacher neural network to a Student neural network in the absence of training data. However, in the Adversarial DFKD framework, the student network’s accuracy, suffers due to the non-stationary distribution of the pseudo-samples under multiple generator updates. To this end, at every generator update, we aim to maintain the student’s performance on previously encountered examples while acquiring knowledge from samples of the current distribution. Thus, we propose a meta-learning inspired framework by treating the task of Knowledge-Acquisition (learning from newly generated samples) and Knowledge-Retention (retaining knowledge on previously met samples) as meta-train and meta-test, respectively. Hence, we dub our method as Learning to Retain while Acquiring. Moreover, we identify an implicit aligning factor between the Knowledge-Retention and Knowledge-Acquisition tasks indicating that the proposed student update strategy enforces a common gradient direction for both tasks, alleviating interference between the two objectives. Finally, we support our hypothesis by exhibiting extensive evaluation and comparison of our method with prior arts on multiple datasets.

A Unified Knowledge Distillation Framework for Deep Directed Graphical Models

Yizhuo Chen · Kaizhao Liang · Zhe Zeng · Shuochao Yao · Huajie Shao

Knowledge distillation (KD) is a technique that transfers the knowledge from a large teacher network to a small student network. It has been widely applied to many different tasks, such as model compression and federated learning. However, existing KD methods fail to generalize to general deep directed graphical models (DGMs) with arbitrary layers of random variables. We refer by deep DGMs to DGMs whose conditional distributions are parameterized by deep neural networks. In this work, we propose a novel unified knowledge distillation framework for deep DGMs on various applications. Specifically, we leverage the reparameterization trick to hide the intermediate latent variables, resulting in a compact DGM. Then we develop a surrogate distillation loss to reduce error accumulation through multiple layers of random variables. Moreover, we present the connections between our method and some existing knowledge distillation approaches. The proposed framework is evaluated on four applications: data-free hierarchical variational autoencoder (VAE) compression, data-free variational recurrent neural networks (VRNN) compression, data-free Helmholtz Machine (HM) compression, and VAE continual learning. The results show that our distillation method outperforms the baselines in data-free model compression tasks. We further demonstrate that our method significantly improves the performance of KD-based continual learning for data generation. Our source code is available at

Coaching a Teachable Student

Jimuyang Zhang · Zanming Huang · Eshed Ohn-Bar

We propose a novel knowledge distillation framework for effectively teaching a sensorimotor student agent to drive from the supervision of a privileged teacher agent. Current distillation for sensorimotor agents methods tend to result in suboptimal learned driving behavior by the student, which we hypothesize is due to inherent differences between the input, modeling capacity, and optimization processes of the two agents. We develop a novel distillation scheme that can address these limitations and close the gap between the sensorimotor agent and its privileged teacher. Our key insight is to design a student which learns to align their input features with the teacher’s privileged Bird’s Eye View (BEV) space. The student then can benefit from direct supervision by the teacher over the internal representation learning. To scaffold the difficult sensorimotor learning task, the student model is optimized via a student-paced coaching mechanism with various auxiliary supervision. We further propose a high-capacity imitation learned privileged agent that surpasses prior privileged agents in CARLA and ensures the student learns safe driving behavior. Our proposed sensorimotor agent results in a robust image-based behavior cloning agent in CARLA, improving over current models by over 20.6% in driving score without requiring LiDAR, historical observations, ensemble of models, on-policy data aggregation or reinforcement learning.

Adaptive Plasticity Improvement for Continual Learning

Yan-Shuo Liang · Wu-Jun Li

Many works have tried to solve the catastrophic forgetting (CF) problem in continual learning (lifelong learning). However, pursuing non-forgetting on old tasks may damage the model’s plasticity for new tasks. Although some methods have been proposed to achieve stability-plasticity trade-off, no methods have considered evaluating a model’s plasticity and improving plasticity adaptively for a new task. In this work, we propose a new method, called adaptive plasticity improvement (API), for continual learning. Besides the ability to overcome CF on old tasks, API also tries to evaluate the model’s plasticity and then adaptively improve the model’s plasticity for learning a new task if necessary. Experiments on several real datasets show that API can outperform other state-of-the-art baselines in terms of both accuracy and memory usage.

Improving Generalization of Meta-Learning With Inverted Regularization at Inner-Level

Lianzhe Wang · Shiji Zhou · Shanghang Zhang · Xu Chu · Heng Chang · Wenwu Zhu

Despite the broad interest in meta-learning, the generalization problem remains one of the significant challenges in this field. Existing works focus on meta-generalization to unseen tasks at the meta-level by regularizing the meta-loss, while ignoring that adapted models may not generalize to the task domains at the adaptation level. In this paper, we propose a new regularization mechanism for meta-learning -- Minimax-Meta Regularization, which employs inverted regularization at the inner loop and ordinary regularization at the outer loop during training. In particular, the inner inverted regularization makes the adapted model more difficult to generalize to task domains; thus, optimizing the outer-loop loss forces the meta-model to learn meta-knowledge with better generalization. Theoretically, we prove that inverted regularization improves the meta-testing performance by reducing generalization errors. We conduct extensive experiments on the representative scenarios, and the results show that our method consistently improves the performance of meta-learning algorithms.

Trainable Projected Gradient Method for Robust Fine-Tuning

Junjiao Tian · Zecheng He · Xiaoliang Dai · Chih-Yao Ma · Yen-Cheng Liu · Zsolt Kira

Recent studies on transfer learning have shown that selectively fine-tuning a subset of layers or customizing different learning rates for each layer can greatly improve robustness to out-of-distribution (OOD) data and retain generalization capability in the pre-trained models. However, most of these methods employ manually crafted heuristics or expensive hyper-parameter search, which prevent them from scaling up to large datasets and neural networks. To solve this problem, we propose Trainable Projected Gradient Method (TPGM) to automatically learn the constraint imposed for each layer for a fine-grained fine-tuning regularization. This is motivated by formulating fine-tuning as a bi-level constrained optimization problem. Specifically, TPGM maintains a set of projection radii, i.e., distance constraints between the fine-tuned model and the pre-trained model, for each layer, and enforces them through weight projections. To learn the constraints, we propose a bi-level optimization to automatically learn the best set of projection radii in an end-to-end manner. Theoretically, we show that the bi-level optimization formulation is the key to learn different constraints for each layer. Empirically, with little hyper-parameter search cost, TPGM outperforms existing fine-tuning methods in OOD performance while matching the best in-distribution (ID) performance. For example, when fine-tuned on DomainNet-Real and ImageNet, compared to vanilla fine-tuning, TPGM shows 22% and 10% relative OOD improvement respectively on their sketch counterparts.

Imitation Learning As State Matching via Differentiable Physics

Siwei Chen · Xiao Ma · Zhongwen Xu

Existing imitation learning (IL) methods such as inverse reinforcement learning (IRL) usually have a double-loop training process, alternating between learning a reward function and a policy and tend to suffer long training time and high variance. In this work, we identify the benefits of differentiable physics simulators and propose a new IL method, i.e., Imitation Learning via Differentiable Physics (ILD), which gets rid of the double-loop design and achieves significant improvements in final performance, convergence speed, and stability. The proposed ILD incorporates the differentiable physics simulator as a physics prior into its computational graph for policy learning. It unrolls the dynamics by sampling actions from a parameterized policy, simply minimizing the distance between the expert trajectory and the agent trajectory, and back-propagating the gradient into the policy via temporal physics operators. With the physics prior, ILD policies can not only be transferable to unseen environment specifications but also yield higher final performance on a variety of tasks. In addition, ILD naturally forms a single-loop structure, which significantly improves the stability and training speed. To simplify the complex optimization landscape induced by temporal physics operations, ILD dynamically selects the learning objectives for each state during optimization. In our experiments, we show that ILD outperforms state-of-the-art methods in a variety of continuous control tasks with Brax, requiring only one expert demonstration. In addition, ILD can be applied to challenging deformable object manipulation tasks and can be generalized to unseen configurations.

Improved Distribution Matching for Dataset Condensation

Ganlong Zhao · Guanbin Li · Yipeng Qin · Yizhou Yu

Dataset Condensation aims to condense a large dataset into a smaller one while maintaining its ability to train a well-performing model, thus reducing the storage cost and training effort in deep learning applications. However, conventional dataset condensation methods are optimization-oriented and condense the dataset by performing gradient or parameter matching during model optimization, which is computationally intensive even on small datasets and models. In this paper, we propose a novel dataset condensation method based on distribution matching, which is more efficient and promising. Specifically, we identify two important shortcomings of naive distribution matching (i.e., imbalanced feature numbers and unvalidated embeddings for distance computation) and address them with three novel techniques (i.e., partitioning and expansion augmentation, efficient and enriched model sampling, and class-aware distribution regularization). Our simple yet effective method outperforms most previous optimization-oriented methods with much fewer computational resources, thereby scaling data condensation to larger datasets and models. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. Codes are available at

A General Regret Bound of Preconditioned Gradient Method for DNN Training

Hongwei Yong · Ying Sun · Lei Zhang

While adaptive learning rate methods, such as Adam, have achieved remarkable improvement in optimizing Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), they consider only the diagonal elements of the full preconditioned matrix. Though the full-matrix preconditioned gradient methods theoretically have a lower regret bound, they are impractical for use to train DNNs because of the high complexity. In this paper, we present a general regret bound with a constrained full-matrix preconditioned gradient and show that the updating formula of the preconditioner can be derived by solving a cone-constrained optimization problem. With the block-diagonal and Kronecker-factorized constraints, a specific guide function can be obtained. By minimizing the upper bound of the guide function, we develop a new DNN optimizer, termed AdaBK. A series of techniques, including statistics updating, dampening, efficient matrix inverse root computation, and gradient amplitude preservation, are developed to make AdaBK effective and efficient to implement. The proposed AdaBK can be readily embedded into many existing DNN optimizers, e.g., SGDM and AdamW, and the corresponding SGDMBK and AdamWBK algorithms demonstrate significant improvements over existing DNN optimizers on benchmark vision tasks, including image classification, object detection and segmentation. The source code will be made publicly available.

From Node Interaction To Hop Interaction: New Effective and Scalable Graph Learning Paradigm

Jie Chen · Zilong Li · Yin Zhu · Junping Zhang · Jian Pu

Existing Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) follow the message-passing mechanism that conducts information interaction among nodes iteratively. While considerable progress has been made, such node interaction paradigms still have the following limitation. First, the scalability limitation precludes the broad application of GNNs in large-scale industrial settings since the node interaction among rapidly expanding neighbors incurs high computation and memory costs. Second, the over-smoothing problem restricts the discrimination ability of nodes, i.e., node representations of different classes will converge to indistinguishable after repeated node interactions. In this work, we propose a novel hop interaction paradigm to address these limitations simultaneously. The core idea is to convert the interaction target among nodes to pre-processed multi-hop features inside each node. We design a simple yet effective HopGNN framework that can easily utilize existing GNNs to achieve hop interaction. Furthermore, we propose a multi-task learning strategy with a self-supervised learning objective to enhance HopGNN. We conduct extensive experiments on 12 benchmark datasets in a wide range of domains, scales, and smoothness of graphs. Experimental results show that our methods achieve superior performance while maintaining high scalability and efficiency. The code is at

Constructing Deep Spiking Neural Networks From Artificial Neural Networks With Knowledge Distillation

Qi Xu · Yaxin Li · Jiangrong Shen · Jian K. Liu · Huajin Tang · Gang Pan

Spiking neural networks (SNNs) are well known as the brain-inspired models with high computing efficiency, due to a key component that they utilize spikes as information units, close to the biological neural systems. Although spiking based models are energy efficient by taking advantage of discrete spike signals, their performance is limited by current network structures and their training methods. As discrete signals, typical SNNs cannot apply the gradient descent rules directly into parameters adjustment as artificial neural networks (ANNs). Aiming at this limitation, here we propose a novel method of constructing deep SNN models with knowledge distillation (KD) that uses ANN as teacher model and SNN as student model. Through ANN-SNN joint training algorithm, the student SNN model can learn rich feature information from the teacher ANN model through the KD method, yet it avoids training SNN from scratch when communicating with non-differentiable spikes. Our method can not only build a more efficient deep spiking structure feasibly and reasonably, but use few time steps to train whole model compared to direct training or ANN to SNN methods. More importantly, it has a superb ability of noise immunity for various types of artificial noises and natural signals. The proposed novel method provides efficient ways to improve the performance of SNN through constructing deeper structures in a high-throughput fashion, with potential usage for light and efficient brain-inspired computing of practical scenarios.

Rate Gradient Approximation Attack Threats Deep Spiking Neural Networks

Tong Bu · Jianhao Ding · Zecheng Hao · Zhaofei Yu

Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) have attracted significant attention due to their energy-efficient properties and potential application on neuromorphic hardware. State-of-the-art SNNs are typically composed of simple Leaky Integrate-and-Fire (LIF) neurons and have become comparable to ANNs in image classification tasks on large-scale datasets. However, the robustness of these deep SNNs has not yet been fully uncovered. In this paper, we first experimentally observe that layers in these SNNs mostly communicate by rate coding. Based on this rate coding property, we develop a novel rate coding SNN-specified attack method, Rate Gradient Approximation Attack (RGA). We generalize the RGA attack to SNNs composed of LIF neurons with different leaky parameters and input encoding by designing surrogate gradients. In addition, we develop the time-extended enhancement to generate more effective adversarial examples. The experiment results indicate that our proposed RGA attack is more effective than the previous attack and is less sensitive to neuron hyperparameters. We also conclude from the experiment that rate-coded SNN composed of LIF neurons is not secure, which calls for exploring training methods for SNNs composed of complex neurons and other neuronal codings. Code is available at

MobileOne: An Improved One Millisecond Mobile Backbone

Pavan Kumar Anasosalu Vasu · James Gabriel · Jeff Zhu · Oncel Tuzel · Anurag Ranjan

Efficient neural network backbones for mobile devices are often optimized for metrics such as FLOPs or parameter count. However, these metrics may not correlate well with latency of the network when deployed on a mobile device. Therefore, we perform extensive analysis of different metrics by deploying several mobile-friendly networks on a mobile device. We identify and analyze architectural and optimization bottlenecks in recent efficient neural networks and provide ways to mitigate these bottlenecks. To this end, we design an efficient backbone MobileOne, with variants achieving an inference time under 1 ms on an iPhone12 with 75.9% top-1 accuracy on ImageNet. We show that MobileOne achieves state-of-the-art performance within the efficient architectures while being many times faster on mobile. Our best model obtains similar performance on ImageNet as MobileFormer while being 38× faster. Our model obtains 2.3% better top-1 accuracy on ImageNet than EfficientNet at similar latency. Furthermore, we show that our model generalizes to multiple tasks -- image classification, object detection, and semantic segmentation with significant improvements in latency and accuracy as compared to existing efficient architectures when deployed on a mobile device.

Understanding Masked Autoencoders via Hierarchical Latent Variable Models

Lingjing Kong · Martin Q. Ma · Guangyi Chen · Eric P. Xing · Yuejie Chi · Louis-Philippe Morency · Kun Zhang

Masked autoencoder (MAE), a simple and effective self-supervised learning framework based on the reconstruction of masked image regions, has recently achieved prominent success in a variety of vision tasks. Despite the emergence of intriguing empirical observations on MAE, a theoretically principled understanding is still lacking. In this work, we formally characterize and justify existing empirical insights and provide theoretical guarantees of MAE. We formulate the underlying data-generating process as a hierarchical latent variable model, and show that under reasonable assumptions, MAE provably identifies a set of latent variables in the hierarchical model, explaining why MAE can extract high-level information from pixels. Further, we show how key hyperparameters in MAE (the masking ratio and the patch size) determine which true latent variables to be recovered, therefore influencing the level of semantic information in the representation. Specifically, extremely large or small masking ratios inevitably lead to low-level representations. Our theory offers coherent explanations of existing empirical observations and provides insights for potential empirical improvements and fundamental limitations of the masked-reconstruction paradigm. We conduct extensive experiments to validate our theoretical insights.

Training Debiased Subnetworks With Contrastive Weight Pruning

Geon Yeong Park · Sangmin Lee · Sang Wan Lee · Jong Chul Ye

Neural networks are often biased to spuriously correlated features that provide misleading statistical evidence that does not generalize. This raises an interesting question: “Does an optimal unbiased functional subnetwork exist in a severely biased network? If so, how to extract such subnetwork?” While empirical evidence has been accumulated about the existence of such unbiased subnetworks, these observations are mainly based on the guidance of ground-truth unbiased samples. Thus, it is unexplored how to discover the optimal subnetworks with biased training datasets in practice. To address this, here we first present our theoretical insight that alerts potential limitations of existing algorithms in exploring unbiased subnetworks in the presence of strong spurious correlations. We then further elucidate the importance of bias-conflicting samples on structure learning. Motivated by these observations, we propose a Debiased Contrastive Weight Pruning (DCWP) algorithm, which probes unbiased subnetworks without expensive group annotations. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art debiasing methods despite its considerable reduction in the number of parameters.

One-Shot Model for Mixed-Precision Quantization

Ivan Koryakovskiy · Alexandra Yakovleva · Valentin Buchnev · Temur Isaev · Gleb Odinokikh

Neural network quantization is a popular approach for model compression. Modern hardware supports quantization in mixed-precision mode, which allows for greater compression rates but adds the challenging task of searching for the optimal bit width. The majority of existing searchers find a single mixed-precision architecture. To select an architecture that is suitable in terms of performance and resource consumption, one has to restart searching multiple times. We focus on a specific class of methods that find tensor bit width using gradient-based optimization. First, we theoretically derive several methods that were empirically proposed earlier. Second, we present a novel One-Shot method that finds a diverse set of Pareto-front architectures in O(1) time. For large models, the proposed method is 5 times more efficient than existing methods. We verify the method on two classification and super-resolution models and show above 0.93 correlation score between the predicted and actual model performance. The Pareto-front architecture selection is straightforward and takes only 20 to 40 supernet evaluations, which is the new state-of-the-art result to the best of our knowledge.

Solving Oscillation Problem in Post-Training Quantization Through a Theoretical Perspective

Yuexiao Ma · Huixia Li · Xiawu Zheng · Xuefeng Xiao · Rui Wang · Shilei Wen · Xin Pan · Fei Chao · Rongrong Ji

Post-training quantization (PTQ) is widely regarded as one of the most efficient compression methods practically, benefitting from its data privacy and low computation costs. We argue that an overlooked problem of oscillation is in the PTQ methods. In this paper, we take the initiative to explore and present a theoretical proof to explain why such a problem is essential in PTQ. And then, we try to solve this problem by introducing a principled and generalized framework theoretically. In particular, we first formulate the oscillation in PTQ and prove the problem is caused by the difference in module capacity. To this end, we define the module capacity (ModCap) under data-dependent and data-free scenarios, where the differentials between adjacent modules are used to measure the degree of oscillation. The problem is then solved by selecting top-k differentials, in which the corresponding modules are jointly optimized and quantized. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method successfully reduces the performance drop and is generalized to different neural networks and PTQ methods. For example, with 2/4 bit ResNet-50 quantization, our method surpasses the previous state-of-the-art method by 1.9%. It becomes more significant on small model quantization, e.g. surpasses BRECQ method by 6.61% on MobileNetV2*0.5.

Adaptive Data-Free Quantization

Biao Qian · Yang Wang · Richang Hong · Meng Wang

Data-free quantization (DFQ) recovers the performance of quantized network (Q) without the original data, but generates the fake sample via a generator (G) by learning from full-precision network (P), which, however, is totally independent of Q, overlooking the adaptability of the knowledge from generated samples, i.e., informative or not to the learning process of Q, resulting into the overflow of generalization error. Building on this, several critical questions -- how to measure the sample adaptability to Q under varied bit-width scenarios? whether the largest adaptability is the best? how to generate the samples with adaptive adaptability to improve Q’s generalization? To answer the above questions, in this paper, we propose an Adaptive Data-Free Quantization (AdaDFQ) method, which revisits DFQ from a zero-sum game perspective upon the sample adaptability between two players -- a generator and a quantized network. Following this viewpoint, we further define the disagreement and agreement samples to form two boundaries, where the margin between two boundaries is optimized to adaptively regulate the adaptability of generated samples to Q, so as to address the over-and-under fitting issues. Our AdaDFQ reveals: 1) the largest adaptability is NOT the best for sample generation to benefit Q’s generalization; 2) the knowledge of the generated sample should not be informative to Q only, but also related to the category and distribution information of the training data for P. The theoretical and empirical analysis validate the advantages of AdaDFQ over the state-of-the-arts. Our code is available at

Learning To Generate Image Embeddings With User-Level Differential Privacy

Zheng Xu · Maxwell Collins · Yuxiao Wang · Liviu Panait · Sewoong Oh · Sean Augenstein · Ting Liu · Florian Schroff · H. Brendan McMahan

Small on-device models have been successfully trained with user-level differential privacy (DP) for next word prediction and image classification tasks in the past. However, existing methods can fail when directly applied to learn embedding models using supervised training data with a large class space. To achieve user-level DP for large image-to-embedding feature extractors, we propose DP-FedEmb, a variant of federated learning algorithms with per-user sensitivity control and noise addition, to train from user-partitioned data centralized in datacenter. DP-FedEmb combines virtual clients, partial aggregation, private local fine-tuning, and public pretraining to achieve strong privacy utility trade-offs. We apply DP-FedEmb to train image embedding models for faces, landmarks and natural species, and demonstrate its superior utility under same privacy budget on benchmark datasets DigiFace, GLD and iNaturalist. We further illustrate it is possible to achieve strong user-level DP guarantees of epsilon < 2 while controlling the utility drop within 5%, when millions of users can participate in training.

Cross-GAN Auditing: Unsupervised Identification of Attribute Level Similarities and Differences Between Pretrained Generative Models

Matthew L. Olson · Shusen Liu · Rushil Anirudh · Jayaraman J. Thiagarajan · Peer-Timo Bremer · Weng-Keen Wong

Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) are notoriously difficult to train especially for complex distributions and with limited data. This has driven the need for interpretable tools to audit trained networks, for example, to identify biases or ensure fairness. Existing GAN audit tools are restricted to coarse-grained, model-data comparisons based on summary statistics such as FID or recall. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach that compares a newly developed GAN against a prior baseline. To this end, we introduce Cross-GAN Auditing (xGA) that, given an established “reference” GAN and a newly proposed “client” GAN, jointly identifies semantic attributes that are either common across both GANs, novel to the client GAN, or missing from the client GAN. This provides both users and model developers an intuitive assessment of similarity and differences between GANs. We introduce novel metrics to evaluate attribute-based GAN auditing approaches and use these metrics to demonstrate quantitatively that xGA outperforms baseline approaches. We also include qualitative results that illustrate the common, novel and missing attributes identified by xGA from GANs trained on a variety of image datasets.

HandsOff: Labeled Dataset Generation With No Additional Human Annotations

Austin Xu · Mariya I. Vasileva · Achal Dave · Arjun Seshadri

Recent work leverages the expressive power of genera- tive adversarial networks (GANs) to generate labeled syn- thetic datasets. These dataset generation methods often require new annotations of synthetic images, which forces practitioners to seek out annotators, curate a set of synthetic images, and ensure the quality of generated labels. We in- troduce the HandsOff framework, a technique capable of producing an unlimited number of synthetic images and cor- responding labels after being trained on less than 50 pre- existing labeled images. Our framework avoids the practi- cal drawbacks of prior work by unifying the field of GAN in- version with dataset generation. We generate datasets with rich pixel-wise labels in multiple challenging domains such as faces, cars, full-body human poses, and urban driving scenes. Our method achieves state-of-the-art performance in semantic segmentation, keypoint detection, and depth es- timation compared to prior dataset generation approaches and transfer learning baselines. We additionally showcase its ability to address broad challenges in model develop- ment which stem from fixed, hand-annotated datasets, such as the long-tail problem in semantic segmentation. Project page:

Attribute-Preserving Face Dataset Anonymization via Latent Code Optimization

Simone Barattin · Christos Tzelepis · Ioannis Patras · Nicu Sebe

This work addresses the problem of anonymizing the identity of faces in a dataset of images, such that the privacy of those depicted is not violated, while at the same time the dataset is useful for downstream task such as for training machine learning models. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to explicitly address this issue and deal with two major drawbacks of the existing state-of-the-art approaches, namely that they (i) require the costly training of additional, purpose-trained neural networks, and/or (ii) fail to retain the facial attributes of the original images in the anonymized counterparts, the preservation of which is of paramount importance for their use in downstream tasks. We accordingly present a task-agnostic anonymization procedure that directly optimises the images’ latent representation in the latent space of a pre-trained GAN. By optimizing the latent codes directly, we ensure both that the identity is of a desired distance away from the original (with an identity obfuscation loss), whilst preserving the facial attributes (using a novel feature-matching loss in FaRL’s deep feature space). We demonstrate through a series of both qualitative and quantitative experiments that our method is capable of anonymizing the identity of the images whilst--crucially--better-preserving the facial attributes. We make the code and the pre-trained models publicly available at:

Fake It Till You Make It: Learning Transferable Representations From Synthetic ImageNet Clones

Mert Bülent Sarıyıldız · Karteek Alahari · Diane Larlus · Yannis Kalantidis

Recent image generation models such as Stable Diffusion have exhibited an impressive ability to generate fairly realistic images starting from a simple text prompt. Could such models render real images obsolete for training image prediction models? In this paper, we answer part of this provocative question by investigating the need for real images when training models for ImageNet classification. Provided only with the class names that have been used to build the dataset, we explore the ability of Stable Diffusion to generate synthetic clones of ImageNet and measure how useful these are for training classification models from scratch. We show that with minimal and class-agnostic prompt engineering, ImageNet clones are able to close a large part of the gap between models produced by synthetic images and models trained with real images, for the several standard classification benchmarks that we consider in this study. More importantly, we show that models trained on synthetic images exhibit strong generalization properties and perform on par with models trained on real data for transfer. Project page:

Unbiased Multiple Instance Learning for Weakly Supervised Video Anomaly Detection

Hui Lv · Zhongqi Yue · Qianru Sun · Bin Luo · Zhen Cui · Hanwang Zhang

Weakly Supervised Video Anomaly Detection (WSVAD) is challenging because the binary anomaly label is only given on the video level, but the output requires snippet-level predictions. So, Multiple Instance Learning (MIL) is prevailing in WSVAD. However, MIL is notoriously known to suffer from many false alarms because the snippet-level detector is easily biased towards the abnormal snippets with simple context, confused by the normality with the same bias, and missing the anomaly with a different pattern. To this end, we propose a new MIL framework: Unbiased MIL (UMIL), to learn unbiased anomaly features that improve WSVAD. At each MIL training iteration, we use the current detector to divide the samples into two groups with different context biases: the most confident abnormal/normal snippets and the rest ambiguous ones. Then, by seeking the invariant features across the two sample groups, we can remove the variant context biases. Extensive experiments on benchmarks UCF-Crime and TAD demonstrate the effectiveness of our UMIL. Our code is provided at

Multimodal Industrial Anomaly Detection via Hybrid Fusion

Yue Wang · Jinlong Peng · Jiangning Zhang · Ran Yi · Yabiao Wang · Chengjie Wang

2D-based Industrial Anomaly Detection has been widely discussed, however, multimodal industrial anomaly detection based on 3D point clouds and RGB images still has many untouched fields. Existing multimodal industrial anomaly detection methods directly concatenate the multimodal features, which leads to a strong disturbance between features and harms the detection performance. In this paper, we propose Multi-3D-Memory (M3DM), a novel multimodal anomaly detection method with hybrid fusion scheme: firstly, we design an unsupervised feature fusion with patch-wise contrastive learning to encourage the interaction of different modal features; secondly, we use a decision layer fusion with multiple memory banks to avoid loss of information and additional novelty classifiers to make the final decision. We further propose a point feature alignment operation to better align the point cloud and RGB features. Extensive experiments show that our multimodal industrial anomaly detection model outperforms the state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods on both detection and segmentation precision on MVTec-3D AD dataset. Code at

FedSeg: Class-Heterogeneous Federated Learning for Semantic Segmentation

Jiaxu Miao · Zongxin Yang · Leilei Fan · Yi Yang

Federated Learning (FL) is a distributed learning paradigm that collaboratively learns a global model across multiple clients with data privacy-preserving. Although many FL algorithms have been proposed for classification tasks, few works focus on more challenging semantic seg-mentation tasks, especially in the class-heterogeneous FL situation. Compared with classification, the issues from heterogeneous FL for semantic segmentation are more severe: (1) Due to the non-IID distribution, different clients may contain inconsistent foreground-background classes, resulting in divergent local updates. (2) Class-heterogeneity for complex dense prediction tasks makes the local optimum of clients farther from the global optimum. In this work, we propose FedSeg, a basic federated learning approach for class-heterogeneous semantic segmentation. We first propose a simple but strong modified cross-entropy loss to correct the local optimization and address the foreground-background inconsistency problem. Based on it, we introduce pixel-level contrastive learning to enforce local pixel embeddings belonging to the global semantic space. Extensive experiments on four semantic segmentation benchmarks (Cityscapes, CamVID, PascalVOC and ADE20k) demonstrate the effectiveness of our FedSeg. We hope this work will attract more attention from the FL community to the challenging semantic segmentation federated learning.

Decentralized Learning With Multi-Headed Distillation

Andrey Zhmoginov · Mark Sandler · Nolan Miller · Gus Kristiansen · Max Vladymyrov

Decentralized learning with private data is a central problem in machine learning. We propose a novel distillation-based decentralized learning technique that allows multiple agents with private non-iid data to learn from each other, without having to share their data, weights or weight updates. Our approach is communication efficient, utilizes an unlabeled public dataset and uses multiple auxiliary heads for each client, greatly improving training efficiency in the case of heterogeneous data. This approach allows individual models to preserve and enhance performance on their private tasks while also dramatically improving their performance on the global aggregated data distribution. We study the effects of data and model architecture heterogeneity and the impact of the underlying communication graph topology on learning efficiency and show that our agents can significantly improve their performance compared to learning in isolation.

Learning Federated Visual Prompt in Null Space for MRI Reconstruction

Chun-Mei Feng · Bangjun Li · Xinxing Xu · Yong Liu · Huazhu Fu · Wangmeng Zuo

Federated Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) reconstruction enables multiple hospitals to collaborate distributedly without aggregating local data, thereby protecting patient privacy. However, the data heterogeneity caused by different MRI protocols, insufficient local training data, and limited communication bandwidth inevitably impair global model convergence and updating. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm, FedPR, to learn federated visual prompts in the null space of global prompt for MRI reconstruction. FedPR is a new federated paradigm that adopts a powerful pre-trained model while only learning and communicating the prompts with few learnable parameters, thereby significantly reducing communication costs and achieving competitive performance on limited local data. Moreover, to deal with catastrophic forgetting caused by data heterogeneity, FedPR also updates efficient federated visual prompts that project the local prompts into an approximate null space of the global prompt, thereby suppressing the interference of gradients on the server performance. Extensive experiments on federated MRI show that FedPR significantly outperforms state-of-the-art FL algorithms with < 6% of communication costs when given the limited amount of local data.

Federated Learning With Data-Agnostic Distribution Fusion

Jian-hui Duan · Wenzhong Li · Derun Zou · Ruichen Li · Sanglu Lu

Federated learning has emerged as a promising distributed machine learning paradigm to preserve data privacy. One of the fundamental challenges of federated learning is that data samples across clients are usually not independent and identically distributed (non-IID), leading to slow convergence and severe performance drop of the aggregated global model. To facilitate model aggregation on non-IID data, it is desirable to infer the unknown global distributions without violating privacy protection policy. In this paper, we propose a novel data-agnostic distribution fusion based model aggregation method called FedFusion to optimize federated learning with non-IID local datasets, based on which the heterogeneous clients’ data distributions can be represented by a global distribution of several virtual fusion components with different parameters and weights. We develop a Variational AutoEncoder (VAE) method to learn the optimal parameters of the distribution fusion components based on limited statistical information extracted from the local models, and apply the derived distribution fusion model to optimize federated model aggregation with non-IID data. Extensive experiments based on various federated learning scenarios with real-world datasets show that FedFusion achieves significant performance improvement compared to the state-of-the-art.

CaPriDe Learning: Confidential and Private Decentralized Learning Based on Encryption-Friendly Distillation Loss

Nurbek Tastan · Karthik Nandakumar

Large volumes of data required to train accurate deep neural networks (DNNs) are seldom available with any single entity. Often, privacy concerns and stringent data regulations prevent entities from sharing data with each other or with a third-party learning service provider. While cross-silo federated learning (FL) allows collaborative learning of large DNNs without sharing the data itself, most existing cross-silo FL algorithms have an unacceptable utility-privacy trade-off. In this work, we propose a framework called Confidential and Private Decentralized (CaPriDe) learning, which optimally leverages the power of fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) to enable collaborative learning without compromising on the confidentiality and privacy of data. In CaPriDe learning, participating entities release their private data in an encrypted form allowing other participants to perform inference in the encrypted domain. The crux of CaPriDe learning is mutual knowledge distillation between multiple local models through a novel distillation loss, which is an approximation of the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence between the local predictions and encrypted inferences of other participants on the same data that can be computed in the encrypted domain. Extensive experiments on three datasets show that CaPriDe learning can improve the accuracy of local models without any central coordination, provide strong guarantees of data confidentiality and privacy, and has the ability to handle statistical heterogeneity. Constraints on the model architecture (arising from the need to be FHE-friendly), limited scalability, and computational complexity of encrypted domain inference are the main limitations of the proposed approach. The code can be found at

RiDDLE: Reversible and Diversified De-Identification With Latent Encryptor

Dongze Li · Wei Wang · Kang Zhao · Jing Dong · Tieniu Tan

This work presents RiDDLE, short for Reversible and Diversified De-identification with Latent Encryptor, to protect the identity information of people from being misused. Built upon a pre-learned StyleGAN2 generator, RiDDLE manages to encrypt and decrypt the facial identity within the latent space. The design of RiDDLE has three appealing properties. First, the encryption process is cipher-guided and hence allows diverse anonymization using different passwords. Second, the true identity can only be decrypted with the correct password, otherwise the system will produce another de-identified face to maintain the privacy. Third, both encryption and decryption share an efficient implementation, benefiting from a carefully tailored lightweight encryptor. Comparisons with existing alternatives confirm that our approach accomplishes the de-identification task with better quality, higher diversity, and stronger reversibility. We further demonstrate the effectiveness of RiDDLE in anonymizing videos. Code and models will be made publicly available.

Multi-View Adversarial Discriminator: Mine the Non-Causal Factors for Object Detection in Unseen Domains

Mingjun Xu · Lingyun Qin · Weijie Chen · Shiliang Pu · Lei Zhang

Domain shift degrades the performance of object detection models in practical applications. To alleviate the influence of domain shift, plenty of previous work try to decouple and learn the domain-invariant (common) features from source domains via domain adversarial learning (DAL). However, inspired by causal mechanisms, we find that previous methods ignore the implicit insignificant non-causal factors hidden in the common features. This is mainly due to the single-view nature of DAL. In this work, we present an idea to remove non-causal factors from common features by multi-view adversarial training on source domains, because we observe that such insignificant non-causal factors may still be significant in other latent spaces (views) due to the multi-mode structure of data. To summarize, we propose a Multi-view Adversarial Discriminator (MAD) based domain generalization model, consisting of a Spurious Correlations Generator (SCG) that increases the diversity of source domain by random augmentation and a Multi-View Domain Classifier (MVDC) that maps features to multiple latent spaces, such that the non-causal factors are removed and the domain-invariant features are purified. Extensive experiments on six benchmarks show our MAD obtains state-of-the-art performance.

Single Image Backdoor Inversion via Robust Smoothed Classifiers

Mingjie Sun · Zico Kolter

Backdoor inversion, the process of finding a backdoor trigger inserted into a machine learning model, has become the pillar of many backdoor detection and defense methods. Previous works on backdoor inversion often recover the backdoor through an optimization process to flip a support set of clean images into the target class. However, it is rarely studied and understood how large this support set should be to recover a successful backdoor. In this work, we show that one can reliably recover the backdoor trigger with as few as a single image. Specifically, we propose the SmoothInv method, which first constructs a robust smoothed version of the backdoored classifier and then performs guided image synthesis towards the target class to reveal the backdoor pattern. SmoothInv requires neither an explicit modeling of the backdoor via a mask variable, nor any complex regularization schemes, which has become the standard practice in backdoor inversion methods. We perform both quantitaive and qualitative study on backdoored classifiers from previous published backdoor attacks. We demonstrate that compared to existing methods, SmoothInv is able to recover successful backdoors from single images, while maintaining high fidelity to the original backdoor. We also show how we identify the target backdoored class from the backdoored classifier. Last, we propose and analyze two countermeasures to our approach and show that SmoothInv remains robust in the face of an adaptive attacker. Our code is available at

Effective Ambiguity Attack Against Passport-Based DNN Intellectual Property Protection Schemes Through Fully Connected Layer Substitution

Yiming Chen · Jinyu Tian · Xiangyu Chen · Jiantao Zhou

Since training a deep neural network (DNN) is costly, the well-trained deep models can be regarded as valuable intellectual property (IP) assets. The IP protection associated with deep models has been receiving increasing attentions in recent years. Passport-based method, which replaces normalization layers with passport layers, has been one of the few protection solutions that are claimed to be secure against advanced attacks. In this work, we tackle the issue of evaluating the security of passport-based IP protection methods. We propose a novel and effective ambiguity attack against passport-based method, capable of successfully forging multiple valid passports with a small training dataset. This is accomplished by inserting a specially designed accessory block ahead of the passport parameters. Using less than 10% of training data, with the forged passport, the model exhibits almost indistinguishable performance difference (less than 2%) compared with that of the authorized passport. In addition, it is shown that our attack strategy can be readily generalized to attack other IP protection methods based on watermark embedding. Directions for potential remedy solutions are also given.

Color Backdoor: A Robust Poisoning Attack in Color Space

Wenbo Jiang · Hongwei Li · Guowen Xu · Tianwei Zhang

Backdoor attacks against neural networks have been intensively investigated, where the adversary compromises the integrity of the victim model, causing it to make wrong predictions for inference samples containing a specific trigger. To make the trigger more imperceptible and human-unnoticeable, a variety of stealthy backdoor attacks have been proposed, some works employ imperceptible perturbations as the backdoor triggers, which restrict the pixel differences of the triggered image and clean image. Some works use special image styles (e.g., reflection, Instagram filter) as the backdoor triggers. However, these attacks sacrifice the robustness, and can be easily defeated by common preprocessing-based defenses. This paper presents a novel color backdoor attack, which can exhibit robustness and stealthiness at the same time. The key insight of our attack is to apply a uniform color space shift for all pixels as the trigger. This global feature is robust to image transformation operations and the triggered samples maintain natural-looking. To find the optimal trigger, we first define naturalness restrictions through the metrics of PSNR, SSIM and LPIPS. Then we employ the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm to search for the optimal trigger that can achieve high attack effectiveness and robustness while satisfying the restrictions. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of PSO and the robustness of color backdoor against different mainstream backdoor defenses.

Adversarially Robust Neural Architecture Search for Graph Neural Networks

Beini Xie · Heng Chang · Ziwei Zhang · Xin Wang · Daixin Wang · Zhiqiang Zhang · Rex Ying · Wenwu Zhu

Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) obtain tremendous success in modeling relational data. Still, they are prone to adversarial attacks, which are massive threats to applying GNNs to risk-sensitive domains. Existing defensive methods neither guarantee performance facing new data/tasks or adversarial attacks nor provide insights to understand GNN robustness from an architectural perspective. Neural Architecture Search (NAS) has the potential to solve this problem by automating GNN architecture designs. Nevertheless, current graph NAS approaches lack robust design and are vulnerable to adversarial attacks. To tackle these challenges, we propose a novel Robust Neural Architecture search framework for GNNs (G-RNA). Specifically, we design a robust search space for the message-passing mechanism by adding graph structure mask operations into the search space, which comprises various defensive operation candidates and allows us to search for defensive GNNs. Furthermore, we define a robustness metric to guide the search procedure, which helps to filter robust architectures. In this way, G-RNA helps understand GNN robustness from an architectural perspective and effectively searches for optimal adversarial robust GNNs. Extensive experimental results on benchmark datasets show that G-RNA significantly outperforms manually designed robust GNNs and vanilla graph NAS baselines by 12.1% to 23.4% under adversarial attacks.

Minimizing Maximum Model Discrepancy for Transferable Black-Box Targeted Attacks

Anqi Zhao · Tong Chu · Yahao Liu · Wen Li · Jingjing Li · Lixin Duan

In this work, we study the black-box targeted attack problem from the model discrepancy perspective. On the theoretical side, we present a generalization error bound for black-box targeted attacks, which gives a rigorous theoretical analysis for guaranteeing the success of the attack. We reveal that the attack error on a target model mainly depends on empirical attack error on the substitute model and the maximum model discrepancy among substitute models. On the algorithmic side, we derive a new algorithm for black-box targeted attacks based on our theoretical analysis, in which we additionally minimize the maximum model discrepancy(M3D) of the substitute models when training the generator to generate adversarial examples. In this way, our model is capable of crafting highly transferable adversarial examples that are robust to the model variation, thus improving the success rate for attacking the black-box model. We conduct extensive experiments on the ImageNet dataset with different classification models, and our proposed approach outperforms existing state-of-the-art methods by a significant margin.

StyLess: Boosting the Transferability of Adversarial Examples

Kaisheng Liang · Bin Xiao

Adversarial attacks can mislead deep neural networks (DNNs) by adding imperceptible perturbations to benign examples. The attack transferability enables adversarial examples to attack black-box DNNs with unknown architectures or parameters, which poses threats to many real-world applications. We find that existing transferable attacks do not distinguish between style and content features during optimization, limiting their attack transferability. To improve attack transferability, we propose a novel attack method called style-less perturbation (StyLess). Specifically, instead of using a vanilla network as the surrogate model, we advocate using stylized networks, which encode different style features by perturbing an adaptive instance normalization. Our method can prevent adversarial examples from using non-robust style features and help generate transferable perturbations. Comprehensive experiments show that our method can significantly improve the transferability of adversarial examples. Furthermore, our approach is generic and can outperform state-of-the-art transferable attacks when combined with other attack techniques.

Improving the Transferability of Adversarial Samples by Path-Augmented Method

Jianping Zhang · Jen-tse Huang · Wenxuan Wang · Yichen Li · Weibin Wu · Xiaosen Wang · Yuxin Su · Michael R. Lyu

Deep neural networks have achieved unprecedented success on diverse vision tasks. However, they are vulnerable to adversarial noise that is imperceptible to humans. This phenomenon negatively affects their deployment in real-world scenarios, especially security-related ones. To evaluate the robustness of a target model in practice, transfer-based attacks craft adversarial samples with a local model and have attracted increasing attention from researchers due to their high efficiency. The state-of-the-art transfer-based attacks are generally based on data augmentation, which typically augments multiple training images from a linear path when learning adversarial samples. However, such methods selected the image augmentation path heuristically and may augment images that are semantics-inconsistent with the target images, which harms the transferability of the generated adversarial samples. To overcome the pitfall, we propose the Path-Augmented Method (PAM). Specifically, PAM first constructs a candidate augmentation path pool. It then settles the employed augmentation paths during adversarial sample generation with greedy search. Furthermore, to avoid augmenting semantics-inconsistent images, we train a Semantics Predictor (SP) to constrain the length of the augmentation path. Extensive experiments confirm that PAM can achieve an improvement of over 4.8% on average compared with the state-of-the-art baselines in terms of the attack success rates.

Feature Separation and Recalibration for Adversarial Robustness

Woo Jae Kim · Yoonki Cho · Junsik Jung · Sung-Eui Yoon

Deep neural networks are susceptible to adversarial attacks due to the accumulation of perturbations in the feature level, and numerous works have boosted model robustness by deactivating the non-robust feature activations that cause model mispredictions. However, we claim that these malicious activations still contain discriminative cues and that with recalibration, they can capture additional useful information for correct model predictions. To this end, we propose a novel, easy-to-plugin approach named Feature Separation and Recalibration (FSR) that recalibrates the malicious, non-robust activations for more robust feature maps through Separation and Recalibration. The Separation part disentangles the input feature map into the robust feature with activations that help the model make correct predictions and the non-robust feature with activations that are responsible for model mispredictions upon adversarial attack. The Recalibration part then adjusts the non-robust activations to restore the potentially useful cues for model predictions. Extensive experiments verify the superiority of FSR compared to traditional deactivation techniques and demonstrate that it improves the robustness of existing adversarial training methods by up to 8.57% with small computational overhead. Codes are available at

CFA: Class-Wise Calibrated Fair Adversarial Training

Zeming Wei · Yifei Wang · Yiwen Guo · Yisen Wang

Adversarial training has been widely acknowledged as the most effective method to improve the adversarial robustness against adversarial examples for Deep Neural Networks (DNNs). So far, most existing works focus on enhancing the overall model robustness, treating each class equally in both the training and testing phases. Although revealing the disparity in robustness among classes, few works try to make adversarial training fair at the class level without sacrificing overall robustness. In this paper, we are the first to theoretically and empirically investigate the preference of different classes for adversarial configurations, including perturbation margin, regularization, and weight averaging. Motivated by this, we further propose a Class-wise calibrated Fair Adversarial training framework, named CFA, which customizes specific training configurations for each class automatically. Experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our proposed CFA can improve both overall robustness and fairness notably over other state-of-the-art methods. Code is available at

Revisiting Residual Networks for Adversarial Robustness

Shihua Huang · Zhichao Lu · Kalyanmoy Deb · Vishnu Naresh Boddeti

Efforts to improve the adversarial robustness of convolutional neural networks have primarily focused on developing more effective adversarial training methods. In contrast, little attention was devoted to analyzing the role of architectural elements (e.g., topology, depth, and width) on adversarial robustness. This paper seeks to bridge this gap and present a holistic study on the impact of architectural design on adversarial robustness. We focus on residual networks and consider architecture design at the block level as well as at the network scaling level. In both cases, we first derive insights through systematic experiments. Then we design a robust residual block, dubbed RobustResBlock, and a compound scaling rule, dubbed RobustScaling, to distribute depth and width at the desired FLOP count. Finally, we combine RobustResBlock and RobustScaling and present a portfolio of adversarially robust residual networks, RobustResNets, spanning a broad spectrum of model capacities. Experimental validation across multiple datasets and adversarial attacks demonstrate that RobustResNets consistently outperform both the standard WRNs and other existing robust architectures, achieving state-of-the-art AutoAttack robust accuracy 63.7% with 500K external data while being 2× more compact in terms of parameters. The code is available at

Privacy-Preserving Adversarial Facial Features

Zhibo Wang · He Wang · Shuaifan Jin · Wenwen Zhang · Jiahui Hu · Yan Wang · Peng Sun · Wei Yuan · Kaixin Liu · Kui Ren

Face recognition service providers protect face privacy by extracting compact and discriminative facial features (representations) from images, and storing the facial features for real-time recognition. However, such features can still be exploited to recover the appearance of the original face by building a reconstruction network. Although several privacy-preserving methods have been proposed, the enhancement of face privacy protection is at the expense of accuracy degradation. In this paper, we propose an adversarial features-based face privacy protection (AdvFace) approach to generate privacy-preserving adversarial features, which can disrupt the mapping from adversarial features to facial images to defend against reconstruction attacks. To this end, we design a shadow model which simulates the attackers’ behavior to capture the mapping function from facial features to images and generate adversarial latent noise to disrupt the mapping. The adversarial features rather than the original features are stored in the server’s database to prevent leaked features from exposing facial information. Moreover, the AdvFace requires no changes to the face recognition network and can be implemented as a privacy-enhancing plugin in deployed face recognition systems. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that AdvFace outperforms the state-of-the-art face privacy-preserving methods in defending against reconstruction attacks while maintaining face recognition accuracy.

Edge-Aware Regional Message Passing Controller for Image Forgery Localization

Dong Li · Jiaying Zhu · Menglu Wang · Jiawei Liu · Xueyang Fu · Zheng-Jun Zha

Digital image authenticity has promoted research on image forgery localization. Although deep learning-based methods achieve remarkable progress, most of them usually suffer from severe feature coupling between the forged and authentic regions. In this work, we propose a two-step Edge-aware Regional Message Passing Controlling strategy to address the above issue. Specifically, the first step is to account for fully exploiting the edge information. It consists of two core designs: context-enhanced graph construction and threshold-adaptive differentiable binarization edge algorithm. The former assembles the global semantic information to distinguish the features between the forged and authentic regions, while the latter stands on the output of the former to provide the learnable edges. In the second step, guided by the learnable edges, a region message passing controller is devised to weaken the message passing between the forged and authentic regions. In this way, our ERMPC is capable of explicitly modeling the inconsistency between the forged and authentic regions and enabling it to perform well on refined forged images. Extensive experiments on several challenging benchmarks show that our method is superior to state-of-the-art image forgery localization methods qualitatively and quantitatively.